Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common medical complication of pregnancy that can have harmful impacts on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Literature shows that elevated serum maternal ferritin levels may cause dysregulation in glucose metabolism in GDM. This study aims to determine the association between serum ferritin, iron and hemoglobin levels in GDM patients at the time of delivery as well as cord hemoglobin and iron levels in newborns.
In this case-control study, a total of 100 patients were included i.e., 50 cases (GDM) and 50 controls (non-GDM) having aged-matched individuals of normal pregnancy. The hemoglobin, iron and serum ferritin, and hsCRP levels of the mother were determined using maternal blood. A cord blood sample was taken to determine neonatal iron and hemoglobin levels.
The study participants mean age was 29.2 ± 5.6 years. The ferritin levels of GDM mothers (42.3 ± 6.7) were significantly higher than non-GDM patients (34.4 ± 3.8) with p<0.001. Similarly, Cord hemoglobin levels of newborns of GDM mothers were significantly higher than newborns of non-GDM patients (p<0.01). In GDM mothers, maternal ferritin levels were inversely correlated to cord hemoglobin levels (r= - 0.29, p =0.004).
Elevated maternal serum ferritin levels are linked to increased oxidative stress and effects fetal intrauterine and post-partum health. The placental iron transfer and fetal hemoglobin synthesis will be affected by oxidative stress.
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