Antibiotic Resistance and Sensitivity Patterns of Commonly Isolated Pathogens from Holy Family Hospital against Cephalosporins

  • Muhammad Sheharyar Khan
  • Abdullah Nasir
  • Aleena Ulfat
  • Shireen Rafique
  • Seemi Gul
  • Muhammad Mushtaq
Keywords: Cephalosporins, Antibiotic Resistance, Acinetobacter


Background: Antimicrobial resistance is increasing dramatically with the passage of time due to an indiscriminate use and prescription of antibiotics in Pakistan. It is therefore necessary to conduct studies identifying resistance and sensitivity patterns time and again so infections can be treated appropriately. Hence, to
determine the efficacy of Cephalosporins against pathogens isolated in Holy Family Hospital we conducted this study.                                                              Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study 382 culture positive samples were studied. Bacteria which are recommended to be tested against Cephalosporins as per Clinical & Laboratory Standard Institute were included in the study. Several samples were collected from the OPD and wards of the hospital. The specimen were stored at appropriate temperature and analyzed in the laboratory to determine the presence of different pathogens by use of microbiological and biochemical tests. Antibiotic resistance was determined using the disc diffusion method. Previous records were also included in the study. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 23. Pearson’s chi square test was used to identify.                                                                                       Results: Out of the 382 positive culture samples, the most common bacteria to be isolated was Escherichia Coli, followed by Acinetobacter, Klebsiella Pneumonae, Pseudomonas, Coliforms, Proteus, Enterococci and Providencia. Cephradine had 100% resistance against Enterococcus. While 3rd generation Cephalosporins, Cefixime, Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime and Ceftraixone had 92.9%, 93.2%, 83.9% and 93.5% resistance. The 4th generation Cephalosporin, Cefepime had 78.7% resistance. Acinetobacter showed complete resistance against all the generations of cephalosporins. Maximum sensitivity (40%) was shown by Escherichia Coli against Cefepime Patterns of resistance shown against Ceftazidime, Ceftriaxone and Cefepime showed association with the type of bacteria, P-values 0.020, 0.002 and 0.026 respectively.
Conclusion: Cephalosporins have started to lose their efficacy in the treatment of commonly isolated bacteria in hospitals. Cefepime may still be used to treat Urinary tract infections, rest of the cephalosporins have become resistant.

How to Cite
Khan M, Nasir A, Ulfat A, Rafique S, Gul S, Mushtaq M. Antibiotic Resistance and Sensitivity Patterns of Commonly Isolated Pathogens from Holy Family Hospital against Cephalosporins. JRMC [Internet]. 14Dec.2019 [cited 24Oct.2021];23(S-2). Available from:

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