Hematological Profiles of Patients Suffering from Severe and Non-Severe COVID-19 Infection
Background: The current COVID-19 pandemic has had devastating effects on the lives of people all over the globe. Thus, it is important to identify differences between the severity levels of the disease to understand pathophysiology better and therefore, come up with more efficient ways to diagnose and combat it. The objective of this study is to analyze the hematological profile of non-severe & severe patients at the time of presentation in tertiary health care set up and identify any differences between them.
Materials and Methods: A comparative retrospective study was carried out among patients visiting the Infectious Diseases Department at Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi through systematic random sampling. The self-structured questionnaire consisted of 1) Sociodemographic details and 2) Hematological profile (samples taken at the time of admission). The hematological profile consisted of hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell count (WBCs), platelets (PLT), neutrophils, prothrombin time (PT), and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). Continuous variables were compared by the Mann–Whitney U test and enumeration variables were compared by Pearson χ2 or Fisher exact test, where appropriate.
Results: Out of 106 patients, fifty-eight (54.7%) were non-severe while 48(45.3%) were severe at the time of presentation. In our study, there was a lower level of platelets and consequently, more thrombocytopenia in severe patients comparatively. A significantly longer PT time was also observed in severe patients. Our results showed a marked difference in the levels of hemoglobin between the two groups, along with an increased incidence of neutrophilia in patients with severe outcomes.
Conclusion: Thrombocytopenia, neutrophilia, and falling hemoglobin levels are the hematological factors that differ significantly between severe and non-severe forms of the disease.
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