Knowledge About Complications of Diabetes Mellitus and its Association with Treatment Compliance Among Type 2 Diabetics Visiting a Public Sector Diabetes Clinic

  • Mubashra Gull
  • Rafia Hussain
  • Mujtaba Haider Bukhari
  • Jamila Bibi
  • Aashi Mughal
Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, knowledge, complications, treatment compliance.


Background: Despite effective methods of treatment, half of the diabetic patients fail to achieve good glycemic control. Type 2 Diabetics who have knowledge about their disease and treatment can play an active role in their diabetes care and are more likely to achieve optimal blood glucose and HbA1c levels. The objective of this study is to assess knowledge of complications of type 2 Diabetes mellitus and its association with treatment compliance in patients visiting a public sector diabetes clinic.
Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive correlational study conducted at the Diabetes Clinic of Benazir Bhutto Hospital that encompassed 180 participants who were positive for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study took place in 6 months from February to July in 2018. The participants were selected by non-probability convenience sampling, and informed consent was taken from the participants. They were assessed by a questionnaire-based interview. Data were analyzed via the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 22 by applying descriptive statistics.
Results: Out of 180 participants, the mean age was 51.53 years (72.8% females and 27.2% males), 46.7% were taking oral hypoglycemic agents while 53.3% were on insulin. Respondents compliant with anti-diabetic drugs were 73.8%. The main reasons for non-compliance include forgetting to take medicine (43.5%), side effects of medications (10.9%), feeling that too many medications were prescribed (10.9%), or high dose was given (8.7%), and interference with meal plans (8.7%). A higher score of knowledge was associated with better compliance with treatment.
Conclusions: The knowledge of complications of diabetes and compliance with treatment is inadequate in patients visiting diabetes clinics. Those who have higher scores showed better compliance with the treatment.


1. World Health Organization. Global report on diabetes. World Health Organization; 2016.
2. Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes care. 2004 May 1;27(5):1047-53.
3. Shera AS, Rafique G, Khwaja IA, Ara J, Baqai S, King H. Pakistan national diabetes survey: prevalence of glucose intolerance and associated factors in Shikarpur, Sindh Province. Diabetic medicine. 1995 Dec 1;12(12):1116-21.
4. Morrish NJ, Wang SL, Stevens LK, Fuller JH, Keen H, WHO Multinational Study Group. Mortality and causes of death in the WHO Multinational Study of Vascular Disease in Diabetes. Diabetologia. 2001 Sep 1;44(2):S14.
5. Carreira M, Anarte MT, Ruiz MD, Félix FC, Machado A, Dominguez-Lopez M, González IM, Esteva ID, Valdes S, Gonzalez-Romero S, Soriguer F. Depression in type 1 diabetes mellitus and associated factors. Medicina clinica. 2010 Jul;135(4):151-5.
6. Bains SS, Egede LE. Associations between health literacy, diabetes knowledge, self-care behaviors, and glycemic control in a low income population with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes technology & therapeutics. 2011 Mar 1;13(3):335-41.
7. Deshpande AD, Harris-Hayes M, Schootman M. Epidemiology of diabetes and diabetes-related complications. Physical therapy. 2008 Nov 1;88(11):1254-64.
8. Badedi M, Solan Y, Darraj H, Sabai A, Mahfouz M, Alamodi S, Alsabaani A. Factors associated with long-term control of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of diabetes research. 2016;2016.
9. Adam L, O'Connor C, Garcia AC. Evaluating the Impact of Diabetes Self-Management Education Methods on Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Canadian Journal of Diabetes. 2017 Nov 23.
10. Afaya RA, Bam V, Azongo TB, Afaya A. Knowledge of chronic complications of diabetes among persons living with type 2 diabetes mellitus in northern Ghana. Plos one. 2020 Oct 28;15(10):e0241424.
11. Islam SM, Niessen LW, Seissler J, Ferrari U, Biswas T, Islam A, Lechner A. Diabetes knowledge and glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh. SpringerPlus. 2015 Dec 1;4(1):284.
12. Habib SS, Aslam M. Risk factors, knowledge and health status in diabetic patients. Saudi medical journal. 2003;24(11):1219-24.
13. White RD. Patient empowerment and optimal glycemic control. Current medical research and opinion. 2012 Jun 1;28(6):979-89.
14. Mira JJ, Llinas G, Gil V, et al. The variability in the care for diabetic and hypertensive patients as a function of the styles of a physician’s practice. Aten. Primaria, 1999;23:73
15. Mc.Elanay IC, Andrews J. The importance of patient education and patient involvement in the treatment of diabetes. Pharma J 2000; 265
16. Ambigapathy R, Ambigapathy S, Ling HM. A knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study of diabetes mellitus among patients attending Klinik Kesihatan Seri Manjung. NCD Malaysia 2003; 2:6-16
17. Raj CP, Angadi MM. Hospital-based KAP study on diabetes in Bijapur, Karnataka. Indian J Med Spec. 2010 Jul 1;1(2):80-3.
18. Badruddin N, Basit A, Hydrie MZ, Hakeem R. Knowledge, attitude and practices of patients visiting a diabetes care unit. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2002;1(2):99-102.
19. Sapkota RP, Upadhyaya T, Gurung G, Parker M, Raman R, Pardhan S. Need to improve awareness and treatment compliance in high-risk patients for diabetic complications in Nepal. BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care. 2018 May 1;6(1):e000525.
20. Al-Maskari F, El-Sadig M, Al-Kaabi JM, Afandi B, Nagelkerke N, Yeatts KB (2013) Knowledge, attitude and practices of diabetic patients in the United Arab Emirates. PLoS One 8(1):e52857.
How to Cite
Gull M, Hussain R, Bukhari M, Bibi J, Mughal A. Knowledge About Complications of Diabetes Mellitus and its Association with Treatment Compliance Among Type 2 Diabetics Visiting a Public Sector Diabetes Clinic. JRMC [Internet]. 12Dec.2020 [cited 8May2021];24(1):32-6. Available from: