Association of Maternal Hypertension with Intrauterine Growth Retardation
To find out the association of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) with maternal hypertension.
Methods: In this case control study 124 cases and 249 controls (thus giving the case to control ratio of 1:2.) were enrolled. All were born full term and delivered in obstetrics department . After taking verbal consent for the study the mothers were interviewed for the presence or absence of hypertension during pregnancy and their antenatal records checked (if available). To rule out the confounders, a study proforma was used to record maternal hypertension, maternal height, weight, BMI, age, anemia, socioeconomic status, preeclampsia, eclampsia, number of children, age of last born, gender, mode and date of delivery. Cases and controls were identified and assigned an identification number. All the study cases were seen by the pediatrician on the first day of life, weighed properly, their length and head circumference noted and plotted on centile charts in accordance with their gender to note the presence or absence of intra uterine growth restriction (IUGR). A p-value of 0.05 or less was used to see the significance of the association.
Results: Mothers of small for gestational age (SGA) babies were more than two times likely to have hypertension. Both low maternal BMI and Anemia in mother were significantly associated with IUGR in both univariate and multivariate analysis. Socioeconomic condition was also showing significant association with IUGR. Other factors like gravidity, maternal age, parity were not showing any association with IUGR.
Conclusion: Maternal anemia and low BMI are showing strong association with IUGR while maternal hypertension is not showing a strong association.
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