Journal of Rawalpindi Medical College <p>Journal of Rawalpindi Medical College (JRMC) is an official publication of Rawalpindi Medical University (RMU- formerly Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan). It was first published in 1997. It is open access, double-blind peer-reviewed journal. It is published quarterly. It follows the <a href="">Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)</a>, and <a href="">International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)</a> guidelines. ISSN (Print) 1683-3562. ISSN (Online) 1683-3570</p> <p> </p> en-US (Dr. Arsalan Manzoor Mughal-(Associate Editor)) (Dr Javeria Tariq-(Senior Manager)) Sat, 01 Apr 2023 06:35:04 +0000 OJS 60 Anatomy In The Undergraduate Medical Curriculum; Blending The Old And New <p>“The nature of the body is the beginning of medical science”-Hippocrates.</p> <p>From the chosen Dhanvantri of ancient India to Imhotep of Egypt, to Huangdi of China<a href="#_edn1" name="_ednref1"><sup>[i]</sup></a>, disease was seen as a combination of the supernatural and the natural and medicine focused on healing the soul and the body. While practices have changed drastically since the establishment of the first organized medieval medical school Schola Medica Salernitana in Italy<a href="#_edn2" name="_ednref2"><sup>[ii]</sup></a>, what remains unchanged is the importance of the basics. If anything, modern knowledge and analysis has increased the emphasis laid on basic sciences and anatomy can be regarded as the backbone, the core of basic medical sciences.</p> <p>Just as a mechanic cannot repair a car without a thorough knowledge of its form, external and internal, a doctor cannot heal the human body without a deep understanding of its structure. A fact that has been understood and utilized by the likes of Herophilus and Vesalius, fathers of anatomy<a href="#_edn3" name="_ednref3"><sup>[iii]</sup></a>. The subject deals with the learning of the structure of the human body from the gross external features down to the microscopic level, at all stages of development, from the embryo to the elderly. This knowledge is essential for a physician in order to understand the functioning of the body, disease pathophysiology and treatment modalities.<a href="#_edn4" name="_ednref4"><sup>[iv]</sup></a> The specialty that benefits the most from this subject in clinical practice is surgery while the rest of the specialties rely on anatomy while during physical exams, symptom interpretation, patient education and interpretation of radiological images.<a href="#_edn5" name="_ednref5"><sup>[v]</sup></a> </p> <p>If we talk specifically about the undergraduate medical curriculum, anatomy is a vital component of the basic sciences taught during the first one or two years of medical or dental school. The role this subject plays in the curriculum can be discussed int two categories: the ideal, theoretical role and the less-than-perfect, practical reality. <br /><br /></p> <p>Most medical schools in Pakistan, UK and USA, despite having adopted an integrated modular system, still teach anatomy in the first two years at the most.<a href="#_edn6" name="_ednref6"><sup>[vi]</sup></a> During these two years, a specific number of hours (from around 150 hours of total teaching time for anatomy) is allocated to gross anatomy, neuroanatomy, histology etc. For deeper understanding and integration, anatomy should be taught all 4-5 years of medical school, assimilated with clinical subjects. While the systems approach of teaching medial curriculum sounds fine on paper, the lack of a standardized practical application of this approach has its pitfalls like the especially for complex subjects like anatomy. Study shows that students who learnt anatomy via the old curriculum scored higher in the subject as compared to students taught through the modular approach. <a href="#_edn7" name="_ednref7"><sup>[vii]</sup></a> Instead of taking anatomy to a higher pedestal, newer recommendations have actually decreased the time and resources spent teaching anatomy, raising concerns among students, faculty and clinicians. <a href="#_edn8" name="_ednref8"><sup>[viii]</sup></a> A sound, comprehensive anatomy curriculum needs to be created, one aligned with clinical practice, with input from anatomists, clinicians and educationists. <a href="#_edn9" name="_ednref9"><sup>[ix]</sup></a></p> <p>Added to this is the issue of the anatomy faculty. In Utopia, medical schools would have a highly trained team of anatomists, proficient in the traditional and modern methods of teaching the subject. The reality, however, is bleak: anatomists have been rapidly dwindling in number with the passing years and the funds allocated to anatomists and their relevant research have been declining leading to lesser people choosing the subject as a profession. The medical world has become enchanted with fields like molecular genetics and cellular biology, diverting staff, resources and graduate requirements to newer fields. Medical students rarely choose to teach the subject after their medical school years. Anatomists now form a very small community, and their training level has deteriorated.<a href="#_edn10" name="_ednref10"><sup>[x]</sup></a> Pakistan has not been spared by this pedagogical plague and PHd trained anatomists are now an almost extinct species in the country adding to the multitude of challenges already faced in anatomy teaching. <a href="#_edn11" name="_ednref11"><sup>[xi]</sup></a> The problem of the ‘disappearing anatomists’ and its impact on medical education has been widely studied but no concrete steps have been taken to address this issue that threatens to disrupt the fabric of medical education.</p> <p>If anatomy is to be seen as the backbone of the basic sciences, the subject that sets the stage and scenery for all other basic sciences subjects, then dissection can be called the building block of that backbone. A lot has changed since the seventh century when the first dissections were practiced and consequently outlawed for the next few centuries. Dissections can now be performed legally, within ethical parameters, and yield a treasure trove of knowledge regarding the human body. <a href="#_edn12" name="_ednref12"><sup>[xii]</sup></a> Not only does dissection provide solid, tangible scientific knowledge, it also teaches important skills like teamwork, professional development, empathy and coming to terms with the prosaic reality of death. <a href="#_edn13" name="_ednref13"><sup>[xiii]</sup></a> However, due to the question of ethics and resources, dissection has been removed from many medical curricula. But has this been a wise decision? Surveys show that most medical students feel that more hours and detail should be invested in dissections and prosections. <a href="#_edn14" name="_ednref14"><sup>[xiv]</sup></a> Medical schools that previously removed cadaveric dissection from the curricula realized their folly and started reintroducing this age-old practice, most of them taking steps to inculcate it along the lines of vertical integration. <a href="#_edn15" name="_ednref15"><sup>[xv]</sup></a></p> <p>‘Obsolete’ is a slur frequently directed at the didactics of anatomy. While paying homage to tradition and all that can learn from it, it is imperative that the subject gains maximum benefit from the fruits of technology and development.<a href="#_edn16" name="_ednref16"><sup>[xvi]</sup></a> Computer assisted learning utilizing 2-D and 3-D imaging, virtual dissection, radiological aids, live surgical streaming<a href="#_edn17" name="_ednref17"><sup>[xvii]</sup></a> and modern educational tools like Problem-Based learning need to be integrated especially in a country like Pakistan where most students still learn anatomy swotting over bland textbooks with the occasional once-in-a-lifetime trip to a poorly equipped dissection hall. Modern educational tools can be manna in our country where medical education is already suffering due to lack of allocated resources and trained staff. The most avant-garde medical colleges in Pakistan are still using hopelessly outdated multimedia options, resulting in increasing student dissatisfaction. <a href="#_edn18" name="_ednref18"><sup>[xviii]</sup></a></p> <p>In conclusion, an exhaustive amount of research has been carried out to define and appreciate the role of anatomy in the undergraduate curriculum, with most clinicians agreeing to anatomy being the cornerstone of medical education.<a href="#_edn19" name="_ednref19"><sup>[xix]</sup></a> Is this subject being taught in a manner fitting it vast implications in the life of a doctors and patients? The answer is no. Do most students possess an adequate knowledge of anatomy? No<a href="#_edn20" name="_ednref20"><sup>[xx]</sup></a>. If anything, the conditions of anatomy learning, despite incorporation of novel technologies, are worsening in medical institutions, leading to potentially grave consequences for the future of healthcare. The stakeholders need to take urgent and applicable steps in the right direction.</p> Ayesha Yousaf Copyright (c) 2023 Ayesha Yousaf Ayesha Yousaf Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 CHILDREN ON ANTI EPILEPTIC DRUGS HAVE LOW SERUM CALCIUM AND RAISED ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE LEVELS <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Objective:</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto"> Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in children requiring long-term therapy using anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Chronic use of AEDs may impair bone health. This study aimed to determine the biochemical changes affecting bone metabolism in pediatric epileptic patients taking AEDs.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:480}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Materials and Methods:</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto"> This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi from January 2019 to July 2019</span><span data-contrast="auto">. A total of 95 children were enrolled based on non-probability consecutive sampling technique. Bone metabolism was evaluated by measuring serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase levels in all the study participants. Data was entered on SPSS v 22 and descriptive statistics were applied.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:480}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Results</span></strong><strong><span data-contrast="auto">:</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto"> Of 95 epileptic children, 50.53% (n=48) were male and 49.47% (n=47) were females taking AEDs (either carbamazepine, valproate sodium or phenobarbital), 47.37% (n=45) were between 2-6 years of age while 52.63% (n=50) were between 7-11 years of age (Mean age: 6.53±2.54 years). Mean calcium and alkaline phosphatase levels of patients were calculated as 7.94±2.3 mg/dl and 226.31±17.45 IU/L respectively. Frequency of hypocalcemia in patients taking AEDs was recorded in 67.37% (n=64) and 81.05% (n=77) had raised alkaline phosphatase levels.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:480}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Conclusion: </span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">This study concludes that frequency of hypocalcemia and raised alkaline phosphatase levels in patients taking AEDs is higher and needs attention to address this issue while the magnitude recorded in this study is primary in local population which needs to be re-assessed through multi-center trials. </span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:480}"> </span></p> Tanzeela Rani, Syeda Mamoona Qudrat, Salma Aziz, Nasar Um Min Allah, Ammara Khalid, Mobeen Tabassum Copyright (c) 2023 Tanzeela Rani, Syeda Mammona Qudrat, Salma Aziz, Ammara Khalid, Mobeen Tabassum, Prof. Rai Muhammad Asghar CHILDREN ON ANTI EPILEPTIC DRUGS HAVE LOW SERUM CALCIUM AND RAISED ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE LEVELS Sun, 02 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OUTCOME OF DEVELOPMENTAL THERAPY IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY CHILDREN: A PROSPECTIVE COHORT <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Introduction:</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto"> Cerebral palsy (CP) is the non-progressive disorder of motor and posture with associated delayed development in areas of cognition, perception, behavior and sensation, due to insult to immature brain.</span><span data-contrast="none"> Improvement in all developmental domains of CP patients depends upon early institution of rehabilitation programs involving al</span><span data-contrast="auto">l multidisciplinary approach.</span><span data-contrast="none"> The portage early education program (PEEP)</span><span data-contrast="auto"> is a worldwide, effective and early interventional method, for developmentally delayed children. </span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="none">Objective: </span></strong><span data-contrast="none">To determine the outcome of developmental therapy in children with CP by using PEEP.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="none">Study Design:</span></strong> <span data-contrast="none">Experimental research design (within group)</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="none">Settings:</span></strong><span data-contrast="none"> The c</span><span data-contrast="none">hildren hospital and the institute of child health Multan.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="none">Methodology:</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto"> 156 patients of 2 to 10 years of age, both gender from January 2020 to December 2020, diagnosed a</span><span data-contrast="none">s CP were enrolled for this study.</span><span data-contrast="none"> All children were assessed </span><span data-contrast="none">by using PEEP and GMFM (Gross Motor Function Measure) </span><span data-contrast="none">twice 6 months apart.</span><span data-contrast="none"> A trained clinical psychologist administered PEEP to all the children. All the Patients were advised regular weekly sessions at hospital by multidisciplinary team and at least 2 hours per day for continuation of these therapies at home. At the end of 6 months we found that all families had not followed this. The patient who visited &gt;2times/month were considered compliant and those visited &lt;2times/month were considered non-compliant. Data was analyzed by using SSPS version 16. Paired </span><em><span data-contrast="none">t</span></em><span data-contrast="none"> test was used to compare the developmental outcome of compliant and non-compliant groups.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559685&quot;:1,&quot;335559737&quot;:15,&quot;335559739&quot;:51,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="none">Results:</span></strong><span data-contrast="none"> Out of 156 participants, 58(37%) were in compliant and 98(63%) non-compliant. Male subjects we</span><span data-contrast="auto">re prominent 42(72.41%) and 67(68.37%) respectively. Most of the participants belonged to 3-6 years of age in both groups28(48.29%) and 51(52.04%) respectively. Spastic quadriplegia (26(44.83%), 57 (58.16%)), and level 5 on GMFM 24(42.86) and 52(53.06%) respectively was commonly presents in both patient groups. The mean comparison of DQ of Compliant CP Children at initial stage and after six months in areas of GM, C, SH, S, L and GMFM was found statistically significant. </span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559685&quot;:1,&quot;335559737&quot;:15,&quot;335559739&quot;:51,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Conclusion:</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto"> CP children should be on regular follow up for developmental therapy for long time for better outcome. PEEP is an excellent system for the assessment, training and rehabilitation of children with delayed development.</span><span data-contrast="auto"> </span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559685&quot;:1,&quot;335559737&quot;:15,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Erum Afzal, Tanveer Ahmad, Muhammad Khalid Iqbal, Kausar Aftab, Rubeena Muein Copyright (c) 2023 Erum Afzal, Tanveer Ahmad, Muhammad Khalid Iqbal, Kausar Aftab, Rubina Muien OUTCOME OF DEVELOPMENTAL THERAPY IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY CHILDREN: A PROSPECTIVE COHORT Sun, 02 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Factors associated with seropositivity of Hepatitis B & C: A case control study at Azad Jammu and Kashmir <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">OBJECTIVE: </span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">To determine the factors associated with seropositivity of hepatitis B and C at Azad Jammu and Kashmir</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">STUDY DESIGN: </span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">Case Control study.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">SETTING AND DURATION: </span></strong><span class="TextRun SCXW61843586 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW61843586 BCX0">Department of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW61843586 BCX0">Gastroenterology</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW61843586 BCX0">Sheikh Khalifa Bin </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW61843586 BCX0">Zayed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW61843586 BCX0"> Al </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW61843586 BCX0">Nahyan</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW61843586 BCX0"> Hospital/ AK Combined Military </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW61843586 BCX0">Hospital Rawalakot,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW61843586 BCX0"> from</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW61843586 BCX0">1</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW61843586 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Superscript SCXW61843586 BCX0" data-fontsize="12">s t</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW61843586 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW61843586 BCX0">January</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW61843586 BCX0"> 2021 to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW61843586 BCX0">30</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW61843586 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Superscript SCXW61843586 BCX0" data-fontsize="12">th </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW61843586 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW61843586 BCX0">June 2021.</span></span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">METHODOLOGY: </span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">This study involved 173 patients suffering from Hepatitis B or C.144 age and gender matched healthy controls was enrolled from within the hospital. Detailed socio-demographic proforma was filled by both the cases and controls which included all the relevant factors. Pearson chi-square test was applied to look for statistically significant difference in factors associated with seropositivity of hepatitis B and C among cases and controls.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">RESULTS: </span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">A totalof 317 participants were included in the study. 144 were healthy controls and 173 were patients suffering from hepatitis B and C. 149 (86.1%) had hepatitis C while 24 (13.9%) had hepatitis B. Mean age of the study participants were 36.95±3.19 years. Marital status, positive family history of hepatitis B and C and history of surgery or dental procedure had statistically significant relationship with seropositivity of Hepatitis B and C (p-value&lt;0.05)</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">CONCLUSION: </span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">Individuals who were married or had anybody in family positive for hepatitis B and C were more at risk of having these infections. In this study dental procedures, surgeries and family history of these infections have highest incidence of risk factors associated with HCV &amp; HBV infections</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> Muhammad Abdul Quddus, Arslan Shahzad, Rukhsana Munawar, Rizwan Saeed Kiani, Humayun Mumtaz, Rabia Tahir Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Abdul Quddus, Rizwan Saeed Kiani, Arslan Shahzad, Muhammad Nadeem, Jhangir Zaib, Rukhsana Munawar Factors associated with seropositivity of Hepatitis B & C: A case control study at Azad Jammu and Kashmir Sun, 02 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 FREQUENCY OF NEONATAL SEPSIS AMONG NEONATES PRESENTING WITH SEIZURES <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">BACKGROUND:</span></strong><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">Neonatal</span><span data-contrast="auto"> seizures may be the first and sometimes the only clinical </span><span data-contrast="auto">symptom</span><span data-contrast="auto"> of </span><span data-contrast="auto">neonatal</span><span data-contrast="auto"> central nervous system </span><span data-contrast="auto">disease</span><span data-contrast="auto">.</span><span data-contrast="auto"> Neonatal seizures may indicate an</span><span data-contrast="auto"> underlying</span><span data-contrast="auto"> treatable </span><span data-contrast="auto">cause</span><span data-contrast="auto">. </span><span data-contrast="auto">Therefore,</span> <span data-contrast="auto">the identification</span><span data-contrast="auto"> of neonatal seizures is </span><span data-contrast="auto">important</span><span data-contrast="auto"> in the management of </span><span data-contrast="auto">high-risk</span> <span data-contrast="auto">newborns.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">OBJECTIVE:</span></strong><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">To determine the frequency of neonatal sepsis among neonates presenting with seizures.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Settings:</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto"> Department of child health, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Duration:</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto"> 6 months 13/10/2018 to 13/4/2019.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Study Design:</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto"> Descriptive (cross sectional) study.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">MATERIAL AND METHODS:</span></strong><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">In this study a total of 195 patients were observed. All neonates were subjected to detailed clinical examination like general physical, neurological examination and detail systemic examination and complete set of baseline investigations. From all neonates, 5cc of venous blood was obtained under strict aseptic technique and was sent to hospital laboratory for measuring the TLC, Absolute neutrophil count, CRP and platelet count to confirm the presence or absence of neonatal sepsis. </span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">RESULTS:</span></strong><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">In this study mean age was 10 days with standard deviation ±8.36. Fifty eight percent neonates were male while 42% neonates were female. More over the 42% neonates had neonatal sepsis while 58% neonates didn’t had neonatal sepsis.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">CONCLUSION:</span></strong><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">Our study concludes that the frequency of neonatal sepsis was 42% among neonates presenting with seizures.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}"> </span></p> Abid Imran, Sijad-Ur- Rehman, Imran Qadir, Kainaat Sheikh, Romana Bibi, Muhammad Idrees Copyright (c) 2023 Abid Imran, Sijad-Ur-Rehman, Imran Qadir, Kainaat Sheikh, Romana Bibi, Muhammad Idrees FREQUENCY OF NEONATAL SEPSIS AMONG NEONATES PRESENTING WITH SEIZURES Sun, 02 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 PSYCHOSOCIAL ILLNESS IN CHILDREN WITH THALASSEMIA: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">INTRODUCTION: </span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">Thalassemia</span> <span data-contrast="auto">is the most common hemolytic autosomal recessive disorder. Pakistan has significant number of thalassemic children</span><strong><span data-contrast="auto"> .</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">The children with chronic disorders like thalassemia are prone to develop psychosocial illness including depression, anxiety, intellectual and behavioral issues.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">OBJECTIVE:</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto"> To assess the psychosocial illness in children with thalassemia and to compare these problems in children with and without Thalassemia</span><span data-contrast="auto"> </span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">PLACE &amp; DURATION: </span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">The Children’s Hospital and the institute of child health, Multan. From January to September 2021.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">STUDY DESIGN: C</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">ase-control</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">MATERIAL AND METHOD:</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto"> In this study 50 children with Thalassemia and 50 normal children were enrolled as case &amp; control according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. After approval from institutional ethical committee, detailed history ,Socioeconomic status, educational status of parent and child, age of diagnosis of disease, and whether thalassemia is well controlled or not and complications were noted. A Pediatric Symptom Checklist was used for psychosocial problems in all children. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Mean and standard deviation for quantitative data, while frequencies and percent for qualitative data was calculated. P-value was calculated by Chi square test. Prevalence ratio (ODDS ratio) with 95%confidence interval of all variables were calculated.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">RESULTS: </span></strong><span data-contrast="none">Out of 100 patients 50 were in case group (Thalassemia) and 50 control (non-thalassemic.Male female ratio was 1.2:1. 60 %( n=30) cases, 78 %( n=39) control patients were age ranges between 5 to 10 years. Educational level of parents of</span><span data-contrast="auto"> 40%(n=20),and 56%(n=28) was below matric,42%(n=21) and 90%(n=45) patients were going to school in case and control group respectively.82%(n=41) patients belonged to low socioeconomical status in each group. Regarding characteristics of thalassemia 74 %( n=37) patients were diagnosed within 1</span><span data-contrast="auto">st</span><span data-contrast="auto"> year of life, while 26 %( n=13) after 1</span><span data-contrast="auto">st</span><span data-contrast="auto"> year.64 %( n=32) had well controlled and 36 %( n=18) poor controlled disease. 20%(n=10) had developed Diabetes mellitus,2%(n=1) heart failure,74%(37) growth failure,76%(n=38) hemolytic facial features and 72%(n=36)skin discoloration. Psychosocial problems were statistically significant in children with Thalassemia as compared to healthy ones (p-value&lt;0.001).Poorly controlled thalassemia and complications of heart and growth failure were found statistically significant risk factors.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">CONCLUSION:</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto"> Psychosocial problems are common in children with thalassemia as compared to healthy ones.</span><span data-contrast="auto"> So </span><span data-contrast="auto">these patients must be referred for detailed psychological evaluation and management along with medical treatment.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233117&quot;:false,&quot;134233118&quot;:false,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559738&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:150,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}"> </span></p> Erum Afzal, Muhammad Aslam Sheikh, Sajjad Hussain Bhaba, Tanveer Ahmed, Imran Iqbal, Muhammad Khalid Iqbal Copyright (c) 2023 Erum Afzal, Muhammad Aslam Sheikh, Sajjad Hussain Bhaba, Tanveer Ahmad, Imran Iqbal, Muhammad Khalid Iqbal PSYCHOSOCIAL ILLNESS IN CHILDREN WITH THALASSEMIA: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY Sun, 02 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A CADAVERIC STUDY OF THE BRANCHING PATTERN OF RIGHT CORONARY ARTERY IN PAKISTANI POPULATION <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Background:</span></strong><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:480}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">It is very common for coronary arteries to vary in their origin, course and area of distribution. The knowledge about these variations is unequivocally important for a cardiac surgeon and physician. However, the prevalence of such variations varies among different populations. The already available data on variations in the anatomy of coronary arteries is mostly based on studies conducted on the western population and quite a few studies report the coronary arterial patterns of Asian population. Between the two main coronary arteries, i.e. the right coronary artery (RCA) and left coronary arteries (LCA), variation in the branching pattern of RCA is more common than LCA. The present study investigated the branching pattern of RCA in the local population in Pakistan and hence will add to the existing data on inter- and intra-population frequencies of branching pattern of RCA among non-Europeans. </span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559731&quot;:720,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:480}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Methods:</span></strong><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:480}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">It was an observational study of six months duration and conducted on dissection cadavers available in various medical colleges of Rawalpindi and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The branching pattern of RCA was studied by blunt dissection method. </span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:480}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Results:</span></strong><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:480}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">Right marginal, conus, Sinuatrial (SA) nodal, atrioventricular (AV) nodal and posterior descending arteries (PDA) were arising from RCA in majority of cases. However, the branching pattern varied from one heart to another as reported in other studies carried out in developed countries. The frequencies of branching patterns of RCA varied from those already reported in literature.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:480}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Conclusions: </span></strong><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:480}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">RCA manifest anatomical variations in branching pattern as reported in international literature and this variation is different in different populations of the world which indicates that postnatal development, along with differences based on geography and ethnicities might contribute to the modification of anatomical pattern of coronary arteries in humans. </span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559731&quot;:720,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:480}"> </span></p> Qazi Waheedullah, Farah Deeba, Sadia Shaukat, Samina Zahir, Shazia Iftikhar, Zainab Rehman Copyright (c) 2023 A CADAVERIC STUDY OF THE BRANCHING PATTERN OF RIGHT CORONARY ARTERY IN PAKISTANI POPULATION Sun, 02 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of chronic restraint stress on body weight of male Sprague Dawley rats <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Background:</span></strong><span data-ccp-props="{}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="none">Stress disturbs body weight and food intake, but the core mechanisms are not well understood.</span><span data-ccp-props="{}"> </span></p> <p><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Study design</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">: Experimental </span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Materials and Methods:</span></strong><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">The study was conducted in National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad Sixty male Sprague Dawley rats (mean wt 250 ± 50 grams) were used and divided into 2 groups. </span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">Each group comprised of 30 rats. </span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">Group I was taken as control. Group II was exposed to chronic stress.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Results</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">:</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">The comparison of weight gain by the different groups disclosed that there was a significant decrease in weight gain of rats exposed to the chronic stress as compared to control group. </span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Conclusion:</span></strong><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">Chronic restraint stress has a detrimental effect on body weight. </span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> Sadia Moazzam, Irfan Afzal Mughal, Noor Ul Ain Irfan, Ilqa Attique, Fareeha Zaheer, Asma Irfan Copyright (c) 2023 Sadia Moazzam, Irfan Afzal Mughal, Noor-ul-Ain Irfan, Ilqa Attique, Fareeha Zaheer, Asma Irfan Effect of chronic restraint stress on body weight of male Sprague Dawley rats Sun, 02 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Positive Findings of Blood Cultures in Febrile Children Presenting with Thalassemia Major in a Tertiary Care Hospital <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Objective: </span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">To assess status of bacterial pathogens in thalassemia major patients presenting with fever in a tertiary care hospital</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Methods:</span></strong><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">A retrospective descriptive study was conducted at –removed for blind review---from </span><span data-contrast="auto">November, 2020 to October, 2021</span><span data-contrast="auto"> in which 102 patients of thalassemia major who presented with fever and were suspicious of having septicemia were enrolled. Their demographic characteristics and pathological findings were noted in this study. Standardized approach was followed for blood withdrawal and sample collection required for performing blood cultures. The data was analyzed with SPSS version 21.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Results:</span></strong><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">Females were in majority. Total 57 (56.0%) of patients had positive blood culture. The most frequent bacterial pathogen was Klebsiella pneumonia 13 (12.7%), followed by E-coli 11 (10.7%), staphylococcus aureus 7 (6.8%), pseudomonas 8 (7.8%) and streptococcus type pathogens 6 (5.8%).</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Conclusion:</span></strong><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">Positive culture findings were high in the thalassemia major patients who presented with fever. </span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> Itrat Fatima, Wafia Affan, Hira Hameed, Wajeeha Amber, Sumbal Saeed, Imran Mahmood Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Itrat Fatima, Wafia Affan, Hira Hameed, Wajeeha Amber, Sumbal Saeed, Imran Mahmood Khan Positive Findings of Blood Cultures in Febrile Children Presenting with Thalassemia Major in a Tertiary Care Hospital Sun, 02 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 FREQUENCY OF OCULAR SYMPTOMS IN COVID-19 PATIENTS <p><strong><span data-contrast="none">Objective:</span></strong> <span data-contrast="none">To determine the frequency of ocular symptoms in COVID 19 patients and its association with systemic symptoms in active COVID 19 patients. </span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="none">Methods:</span></strong><span data-contrast="none"> This is a cross sectional observational study of laboratory confirmed COVID-19 patients who were admitted in isolation wards for a period from Dec 16, 2020 to Jan 15, 2021. A structured form was used to extract the data from electronic medical records. Data collected included sociodemographic characteristics, presenting symptoms, systemic signs and symptoms, ocular symptoms, past medical history, RT-PCR and chest radiographic findings.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="none">Results:</span></strong><span data-contrast="none"> A total of 44 patients </span><strong><span data-contrast="none">(</span></strong><span data-contrast="none">30 (68.2%) males and 14 (31.82%) females</span><strong><span data-contrast="none">)</span></strong><span data-contrast="none"> were admitted to the isolation wards during the study period. The mean age (</span><span data-contrast="none">+</span><span data-contrast="none"> SD) age was 55.75 </span><span data-contrast="none">+</span><span data-contrast="none"> 14.53 with median range 57.50 (14-92). Age &lt;30 years i.e. 4.5%, 30-50 i.e. 27.3% and &gt;50 i.e. 68.2%.Ocular symptoms were present in 17 patients (38.6%). </span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="none">Conclusion</span></strong><span data-contrast="none">:</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="none">We conclude from our study that Ocular symptoms were present in 17 patients (38.6%) out of 44 (Total number of patients) However, these symptoms were mild, had no fixed pattern of occurrence, neither associated with the severity of the systemic disease nor associated with any serious ocular outcome</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> Maria Zubair, Nida Hafeez, Wajeeha Rasool, Kanwal Zareen Abbasi, Ain Us Seher, Fuad A.K. Niazi Copyright (c) 2023 Maria Zubair, Nida Hafeez, Wajeeha Rasool, Kanwal Zareen Abbasi, Ain Us Seher, Fuad AK Niazi FREQUENCY OF OCULAR SYMPTOMS IN COVID-19 PATIENTS Sun, 02 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of caffeine and vitamin D3 on the body-weight of pregnant BALB/c mice <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Objective: </span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">To investigate the effect of caffeine and Vitamin D</span><span data-contrast="auto">3</span><span data-contrast="auto"> on the body weight of pregnant BALB/c mice.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:2,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559738&quot;:300,&quot;335559739&quot;:300,&quot;335559740&quot;:375}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Design of Study: </span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">An RCT (Randomized control trial) in the Lab.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:2,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559738&quot;:300,&quot;335559739&quot;:300,&quot;335559740&quot;:375}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Place and Duration of Study: </span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">The study was carried out at Anatomy Department, Army Medical College (AMC), Rawalpindi, in collaboration with National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad, from Oct 2018 to Oct 2019.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:2,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559738&quot;:300,&quot;335559739&quot;:300,&quot;335559740&quot;:375}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Material and Methods: </span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">Six-week old pregnant BALB/c mice, thirty (30) in number, weighing </span> <br /><span data-contrast="auto">26-28g, were taken and divided into three groups with 10 pregnant mice in each group. The control group G</span><span data-contrast="auto">1</span><span data-contrast="auto"> was given standard diet with water ad libitum for 21 days. The animals in experimental group G</span><span data-contrast="auto">2</span><span data-contrast="auto">, in addition to the standard diet, were given 10mg of caffeine per 100g body-weight once a day on alternate days by oral gavage for 21 days. Similarly, </span><span data-contrast="auto">mice in group G</span><span data-contrast="auto">3</span><span data-contrast="auto">, in addition to the diet of group G</span><span data-contrast="auto">2</span><span data-contrast="auto">, were given 0.1µg of vitamin D</span><span data-contrast="auto">3</span><span data-contrast="auto"> per day </span><span data-contrast="auto">by oral gavage for 21 days</span><span data-contrast="auto">. </span><span data-contrast="auto"> The body-weights on 1</span><span data-contrast="auto">st</span><span data-contrast="auto"> day, 7</span><span data-contrast="auto">th</span><span data-contrast="auto"> day, 14</span><span data-contrast="auto">th</span><span data-contrast="auto"> day and 21</span><span data-contrast="auto">st</span><span data-contrast="auto"> day of gestation in all the groups were measured to determine the influence of caffeine and vitamin D</span><span data-contrast="auto">3</span><span data-contrast="auto">.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:2,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559738&quot;:300,&quot;335559739&quot;:300,&quot;335559740&quot;:375}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Results: </span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">Mean body-weights of mice in control group G</span><span data-contrast="auto">1</span><span data-contrast="auto"> were noted as </span><span data-contrast="auto">26.8 </span><span data-contrast="auto">± 0.789g, </span><span data-contrast="auto">30.7 </span><span data-contrast="auto">± 0.949g, </span><span data-contrast="auto">36 </span><span data-contrast="auto">± 0.667g and </span><span data-contrast="auto">42 </span><span data-contrast="auto">± 1.054g on 1</span><span data-contrast="auto">st</span><span data-contrast="auto">, 7</span><span data-contrast="auto">th</span><span data-contrast="auto">, 14</span><span data-contrast="auto">th </span><span data-contrast="auto">and 21</span><span data-contrast="auto">st </span><span data-contrast="auto">day of gestation, respectively. The mean body-weights of experimental group G</span><span data-contrast="auto">2</span><span data-contrast="auto"> were recorded to be 26.7 ± 0.675g, 29.9 ± 0.738g, 34.3 ± 0.823g and 39.5 ± 0.972g on 1</span><span data-contrast="auto">st</span><span data-contrast="auto">, 7</span><span data-contrast="auto">th</span><span data-contrast="auto">, 14</span><span data-contrast="auto">th</span><span data-contrast="auto"> and 21</span><span data-contrast="auto">th</span><span data-contrast="auto"> day of gestation, respectively. The mean body-weights of experimental group G</span><span data-contrast="auto">3</span><span data-contrast="auto"> were determined as 26.8 ± 0.632g, 30.4 ± 0.699g, 34.6 ± 0.516g and 40.5 ± 0.850g on 1</span><span data-contrast="auto">st</span><span data-contrast="auto">, 7</span><span data-contrast="auto">th</span><span data-contrast="auto">, 14</span><span data-contrast="auto">th</span><span data-contrast="auto"> and 21</span><span data-contrast="auto">st</span><span data-contrast="auto"> day of gestation, respectively. In comparison to the control group G</span><span data-contrast="auto">1</span><span data-contrast="auto">, the body-weights of animals in experimental group G</span><span data-contrast="auto">2 </span><span data-contrast="auto">showed more decrease in accrual of body-weight than noted in experimental group G</span><span data-contrast="auto">3</span><span data-contrast="auto">.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:2,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559738&quot;:300,&quot;335559739&quot;:300,&quot;335559740&quot;:375}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Conclusion: </span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">Caffeine intake has decreasing influence on the growth of body-weight in pregnant mice while intake of vitamin D</span><span data-contrast="auto">3 </span><span data-contrast="auto">somewhat nullifies the harmful effect of caffeine on body-weight.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:2,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559738&quot;:300,&quot;335559739&quot;:300,&quot;335559740&quot;:375}"> </span></p> Maimoona Khan, Muhammad Saad Abdullah, Fareeha Mushtaq, Faiza Umbreen, Muhammad Rizwan Bashir Kiani, Ayesha Shahid Copyright (c) 2023 Maimoona Khan, Muhammad Saad Abdullah, Fareeha Mushtaq, Faiza Umbreen, Muhammad Rizwan Bashir Kiani, Ayesha Shahid Impact of caffeine and vitamin D3 on the body-weight of pregnant BALB/c mice Sun, 02 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of E-Learning, Perception and Attitude among Students and Faculty following the COVID-19 Pandemic <p><strong>Background and Aim: </strong>The Novel coronavirus disease has grasped the world as one of the most devastating pandemics of recent times. Many efforts such as social distancing was made to cut down the spread of the virus in its early days and restrictions were followed by numerous countries worldwide which resulted in serious hurdles in all sectors of our daily lives such as education, financial and social activities. This study was conducted to evaluate the implications of E-Learning and its future use by students and faculty members following the pandemic restrictions.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> The study was a cross-sectional survey that was distributed online among students and faculty members belonging to medical and non-medical programs across universities in major cities of Pakistan.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Of the total 476 responses, it was evident that the majority of the students were not satisfied with the learning experience that virtual classrooms provided. Concerning clinical and practical skills, a majority agreed that the online teaching method is not an effective way to develop essential skills.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Online education may be a necessary technological advancement needed in the field of education, but as concluded from the results of this study there is a disagreement about virtual classrooms being an effective medium of learning. It is also inconvenient to develop appropriate practical and clinical skills using E-learning as a medium.</p> <p> </p> Syed Hamza Zia, Ghina Rizwan, Afifa Ehsan, Zarnab Rizwan, Rabia Masood, Naila Umer Copyright (c) 2023 Syed Hamza Zia, Ghina Rizwan, Zarnab Rizwan, Rabia Masood, Naila Umer, Afifa Ehsan Impact of E-Learning, Perception and Attitude among Students and Faculty following the COVID-19 Pandemic Sun, 02 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of clean intermittent self catheterization in patients with recurrent urethral stricture post visual internal urethrotomy <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">OBJECTIVE </span></strong><strong><span data-contrast="auto">:</span></strong><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:480}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto"> Objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of CISC in management of recurrent urethral strictures after visual internal urethrotomy.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:480}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">METHODOLOGY</span></strong><strong><span data-contrast="auto"> :</span></strong><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:480}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">This study performed in department of urology Saidu teaching hospital Swat from June 2016 to July 2019 on 215 patients who were diagnosed as having urethral stricture disease. Patients were counseled for CISC after removal of catheter 2 times a day for 8 weeks and at 8</span><span data-contrast="auto">th</span><span data-contrast="auto"> week cystourethroscopy performed along with detail evaluation of symptoms of urethral stricture to know recurrence of stricture.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:480}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">RESULTS:</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto"> </span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:480}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">81.39% patients have no urethral stricture on cystourethroscopy and symptomatic evaluation at 8</span><span data-contrast="auto">th</span><span data-contrast="auto"> week post visual internal urethrotomy while 18.60% patients have recurrent urethral stricture . Length of urethral stricture is the most important prognostic factor, stricture of less than 1 cm has success rate of 62.39% while stricture of more than one cm length has success rate of 20% as shown in table IV.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:480}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">CONCLUSION:</span></strong><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:480}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">In this study it has been confirmed that CISC is safe ,cost effective procedure and most of the patients can do it in home with out any complications.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:480}"> </span></p> Naqib Ullah, Jamshid Nawaz, Muhammad Shoaib, Asif Khan, Nizam ud Din, Tauheed Fareed Copyright (c) 2023 Naqib Ullah, Jamshid Nawaz, Muhammad Shoaib, Asif Khan, Nizam u din, Tauheed Fareed. Effectiveness of clean intermittent self catheterization in patients with recurrent urethral stricture post visual internal urethrotomy Sun, 02 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Emergency Peripartum Hystrectomy and Postnatal Depression <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Objective:</span></strong> <span data-contrast="auto">to investigate postnatal depression after emergency peripartum hysterectomy versus controls.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Material and methods:</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto"> This case control study was conducted at District headquarters teaching hospital Rawalpindi between July 2020 and June 2021.We compared postnatal depression among patients who underwent emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH)versus control group where surgical procedures other than hysterectomy (B-Lynch, uterine artery ligation or internal iliac artery ligation) were performed.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Results: </span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">A total of 88 patients were included, 44 in hysterectomy group and 44 in non hystrectomized/control group. The scores on Edinburgh post-natal depression scale were high in hysterectomy group (11.61±2.48) , compared to non hysterectomy group(6.79±2.13) which was statistically significant. ( p=0.001).Uterine atony, Placental abruption, placenta previa and accrete, were identified as main reasons for surgical intervention in both groups. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy is a traumatic birth event with serious physical, emotional and psychological consequences. It is empirical to not only screen the women in immediate postpartum period, but a long term follow up in community is required.</span><span data-contrast="auto"> </span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}"> </span></p> <p> </p> Tabinda Khalid, Sobia Nawaz, Malik Irfan Ahmed, Saima Nawaz Malik, Ruqyyah Salim, Shahla Manzoor Copyright (c) 2023 Tabinda Khalid, Sobia Nawaz, Malik Irfan Ahmed, Saima Nawaz Malik. Emergency Peripartum Hystrectomy and Postnatal Depression Sun, 02 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF INFECTION CONTROL AMONG DENTAL PRACTITIONERS IN ISLAMIC INTERNATIONAL DENTAL HOSPITAL,RIPHAH <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Objective: </span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">The aim of the study was to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practices among dental practitioners at a dental hospital in Islamabad.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233118&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Materials and methods: </span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">This study consisted of 147 participants. The questionnaire had 21 questions related to vaccination status, barrier techniques infection control practices and awareness. The questionnaire was distributed through Google forms to the participants after taking consent from them. The data was analyzed and tabulated through </span><em><span data-contrast="auto">SPSS version 23</span></em><span data-contrast="auto">.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233118&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Result: </span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">Out of 147, 123 participants responded to our questionnaire. 75.6% of the participants were vaccinated against hepatitis B and 87.8% regularly wash their hands before and after dental treatment.100% of the participants wore and change gloves after each patient. In current study the senior dental practitioners had a relatively poor mean score(4.1%) in terms of knowledge, attitude and practice scores regarding infection control as compared to house officers and fresh graduates (59%). </span><span data-contrast="auto">1)</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233118&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Conclusion: </span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">The infection control knowledge, attitude and practices among dental practitioners was better, however there is room for improvement in compliance and knowledge in the dental health care workers. More knowledge about infection control measures should be provided to the dental practitioners, moreover efforts are needed to improve the attitude and practice of the dental practitioners towards infection control at Islamic International Dental Hospital, Islamabad.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233118&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}"> </span></p> Ufaq Rao, Abdul Razaq Khan, Zarnab Rizwan, Ghina Rizwan, Syed Hamza Zia Copyright (c) 2023 Ufaq Rao, Abdul Razzaq, Zarnab Rizwan, Ghina Rizwan, Syed Hamza Zia KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF INFECTION CONTROL AMONG DENTAL PRACTITIONERS IN ISLAMIC INTERNATIONAL DENTAL HOSPITAL,RIPHAH Sun, 02 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 VARIATION IN INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY PROTRUSION AND DEHISCENCE IN A SUBSET OF KARACHI POPULATION <p><span data-contrast="none">Objective: To find out the frequency of protrusion of Internal Carotid artery in sphenoid sinus and dehiscence of carotid canal in a subset of Karachi population.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="none">Study design: This was a Cross-sectional study conducted at Radiology department of Ziauddin university.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="none">Methodology: </span><span data-contrast="auto">We analyzed 270 head and neck CT scans</span><span data-contrast="none"> 270 Head and neck CT scans (540 sides) were analyzed. CT was performed on a 16 slice Toshiba Alexion at Ziauddin Hospital, Karachi —removed for blind review---. SPSS version 20 was used for data analysis.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="none">Results: Out of 270 CT scans analyzed, 28 (10.3) scans showed protrusion of ICA in sphenoid sinus. Out of 45 (16.6) of the subjects showed dehiscence of carotid canal. Out of total dehiscence present unilateral cases were more frequent as compared to bilateral. Unilateral protrusion was also more common as compared to bilateral protrusion of ICA.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="none">Conclusion: Knowledge of dehiscence and protrusion related to ICA and sphenoid sinus anatomy is essential to avoid complications in endoscopic sinus surgery.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> Mubina Lakhani, Iffat Raza, Maria Mohiuddin, Rosheena Nabeel Khan, Santosh Kumar Sidhwani, Nuzhat Hassan Copyright (c) 2023 Mubina Lakhani, Maria Mohiuddin, Rosheena Nabeel Khan, Iffat Raza, Santosh Kumar Sidhwani, Nuzhat Hassan VARIATION IN INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY PROTRUSION AND DEHISCENCE IN A SUBSET OF KARACHI POPULATION Sun, 02 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Early Breast-Feeding Initiation Using Point of Care Quality Improvement Model at Tertiary Care Hospital in AJK <p><strong><span data-contrast="none">ABSTRACT</span></strong><span data-contrast="none">: </span><span data-contrast="none">Urgency and solely</span><span data-contrast="none"> utility of breast feeding for six months is better for the provision of a healthy start to newborn and reduces infant mortality and morbidity. The prevalence of late lactation and other ways to formula or animal milk feeding the neonate in Pakistan is often observed other than the WHO recommendations.</span><span data-contrast="none"> Early initiation of breast feeding is one of the indicators to express quality of Care in Maternal, and newborn Health. Among many approaches, point of care Quality improvement initiative (POCQI) is a simplified tool for learning the basics of quality improvement in the health care facilities. </span><span data-contrast="none">This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of early initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in a tertiary care hospital in AJK, where POCQI has been piloted.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233117&quot;:true,&quot;134233118&quot;:false,&quot;134245417&quot;:true,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="none">Methods:</span></strong><strong><span data-contrast="none"> </span></strong><span data-contrast="none">A quality improvement, cross sectional study before and after the implementation of POCQI model on two independent samples was carried out from August to November 2019. A total of 100 women (50 before intervention and 50 after intervention) who delivered neonates of 0-7 day’s age were included in study by using non-probability convenience sampling technique. The relevant information was gathered by using questionnaire. Mothers who did not start breast feeding within first hour did not receive any health education during antenatal visits. such women lack knowledge about benefits of colostrum. Hence an intervention was introduced by Researcher jointly in collaboration with POCQI team of the hospital by using Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle. Slogans and health education messages for promotion of early initiation of breast feeding were developed and message was spread to pregnant mothers who visited hospital for antenatal care or came for delivery in labor room.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233117&quot;:true,&quot;134233118&quot;:false,&quot;134245417&quot;:true,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="none">Results</span></strong><span data-contrast="none">: </span><span data-contrast="none">A total of 100 women (50 before intervention and 50 after intervention) who delivered newborn babies of 0-7 day’s age were selected purposively. Before POCQI intervention out of fifty only eleven (22 %) women breastfed their new born within one hour after birth. After POCQI intervention, out of fifty, thirty-seven women (74%) exclusive breastfed their new born within one hour. Thus, total increase in term of percentage was 54%.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233117&quot;:true,&quot;134233118&quot;:true,&quot;134245417&quot;:true,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6}"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="none">CONCLUSION</span></strong><span data-contrast="none">: </span><span data-contrast="none">The study gives evidence for more needs to enhance breastfeeding uptake in AJK. The prevalence of EIBS was low before implementation of POCQI model but it improved significantly after its application</span></p> Aftab Hussain Khan, Mumtaz Ahmed Khan, Abrar Akbar, Sehrish Mumtaz, Yasira Abbasi, Lubna Meraj Copyright (c) 2023 Aftab Hussain Khan, Mumtaz Ahmad Khan, Abrar Akbar, Sehrish Mumtaz, Yasira Abbasi, Lubna Meraj Early Breast-Feeding Initiation Using Point of Care Quality Improvement Model at Tertiary Care Hospital in AJK Sun, 02 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Dexmedetomidine by Improving Sleep Quality and Pain Control in Covid-19 Patients <p><span data-contrast="none">OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the effective role of Dexmedetomidine as a sedative and analgesic agent in Covid-19 patients when used in conjunction with the established treatment of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559685&quot;:-5,&quot;335559739&quot;:238,&quot;335559740&quot;:240,&quot;335559991&quot;:10}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="none">INTRODUCTION: Covid-19 disease is a deadly contagious disease with milder symptoms to a more severe form with acute respiratory failure, septic shock leading to even death. Literature study shows High Flow Nasal Oxygen therapy and prolonged prone position sessions to be beneficial in the treatment of ARDS, however, to facilitate those sessions, a sedative and anxiolytic agent must be added in the treatment. Therefore, this study was conducted to document the beneficial role of dexmedetomidine as a sedative agent.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559685&quot;:-5,&quot;335559739&quot;:238,&quot;335559740&quot;:240,&quot;335559991&quot;:10}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="none">METHODOLOGY: Retrospective observational study which included 150 PCR positive patients admitted in Covid ITC, from 1</span><span data-contrast="none">st</span><span data-contrast="none"> February 2021 to 31</span><span data-contrast="none">st</span><span data-contrast="none"> July 2021 residing in the premises of PAF Air Base, Mushaf, Sargodha. Data was analyzed using SPSS software. </span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559685&quot;:-5,&quot;335559739&quot;:238,&quot;335559740&quot;:240,&quot;335559991&quot;:10}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="none">RESULTS: Out of 150 patients, 120 (80%) were treated with High Flow Nasal Oxygen (HFNO), Dexmedetomidine infusion (DEXME) and long periods of prone position (PP) sessions. Among these 120 patients, 88 (73.3%) were discharged while 32 (26.67%) patients died of which 7 (21.875%) died while being on HFNO therapy and 25 (78.125%) patients were intubated. DEXME infusion was found to have a positive outcome (P-value &lt;0.005) in the treatment of moderate to severe ARDS.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559685&quot;:-5,&quot;335559739&quot;:238,&quot;335559740&quot;:240,&quot;335559991&quot;:10}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="none">CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that DEXME infusion is beneficial in moderate to severe ARDS caused by SARS-CoV2 when given along with HFNO therapy and prolonged PP sessions, thereby, avoiding intubation. </span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559685&quot;:-5,&quot;335559739&quot;:238,&quot;335559740&quot;:240,&quot;335559991&quot;:10}"> </span></p> Maliha Khalid, Faheem Feroze, Saad bin Qamar, Naseem Abbas, Saeed Farooq, Aisha Siddiqui Copyright (c) 2023 Maliha Khalid, Faheem Feroze, Saad Bin Qamar, Lt. Col. Naseem Abbas, Saeed Farooq, Aisha Siddiqui Role of Dexmedetomidine by Improving Sleep Quality and Pain Control in Covid-19 Patients Sun, 02 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Fathers’ Expressed Emotions in Psychopathology and Social-Emotional Competence in Adolescents <p><strong>Background<em>: </em></strong>To study the role of fathers’ expressed emotions in psychopathology and social-emotional competence in adolescents.</p> <p><strong>Methods<em>:</em></strong> Through observational research design a study was conducted in the district Gujrat Pakistan from July 2020 to march 2021.As the inclusion criteria of the study was to include adolescents whose age range was 12 to 19 and the only fathers included whose children were adolescents. So the purposive sampling technique was used and five hundred adolescents were selected from different colleges and schools, five hundred fathers of same adolescents approached from the community and their working places. For this purpose Parental Expressed Emotions Scale <sup>1</sup> was used and to assess the psychopathology (Social anxiety) and social-emotional competence in adolescents, Social Anxiety Scale,<sup>2</sup> and Social Emotional-Competence Scale <sup>3</sup> were used and data was analyzed by using SPSS-21.</p> <p><strong>Results<em>:</em></strong> A total of 500 adolescents selected for study whose age range was from 12-19 years <sup>4 </sup>and mean age of 16 years. In which 229 (46%) were boys and 271 (54%) were girls. Simple linear regression was used to see the effects of father expressed emotions in psychopathology and social-emotional competence in adolescents. Results showed significant difference in negative and positive expressed emotions of father. Father’ expressed emotions of critical comments caused 56%and hostility 64% predictor of social anxiety in adolescents. On the other hand father emotional -over involvement caused 11% warmth 37% and positive remarks 17% increase in social-emotional competence of adolescents.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Father expressed emotions found to be significant predictor of social anxiety and social-emotional competence in adolescents.</p> Shammem Akhtar, Fatima Ali Raza Mughal Copyright (c) 2023 Shammem Akhtar, Fatima Ali Raza Mughal The Role of Fathers’ Expressed Emotions in Psychopathology and Social-Emotional Competence in Adolescents Sun, 02 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Prevention of Ovarian Hyper stimulation Syndrome by using gonadotrophic releasing hormone analogue to induce final ovulation trigger in invitro fertilization cycles <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To find out occurrence of ovarian hyperstimulation in patients who were hyper responders in in vitro fertilization cycles. Secondary outcome was to assess number of metaphase II oocyte and fertilization rate, cleavage rate and pregnancy outcome when GnRHa is used for final maturation and triggering ovulation.</p> <p><strong>STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, and DURATION:</strong> This is retrospective descriptive analysis of cases managed at single center from June 2017 till May 2018.</p> <p><strong>PATIENTS &amp; METHODS:</strong> Twenty patients were identified as hyper responders based on baseline, ovarian reserve characteristics, that is antral follicle count, (AFC) &gt; 25, AMH &gt; 4ng/ml and on day of trigger, follicles &gt;-25 in number of ≥ 11mm were administered GnRHa trigger and 1500IU hCG on oocyte retrieval day while luteal phase was supported with daily vaginal progesterone and twice daily estradiol valerate. Sixteen patients underwent fresh transfer while four patients had their embryos frozen.</p> <p><strong>MAIN RESULTS:</strong> Twenty patients were identified as high risk and their baseline characteristics were, mean age 31.7 ± 4.50, mean antral follicle count 25.7 ± 5.01, Anti Mullerian hormone level mean 4.64 ± 2.52 and PCOS was present in 35% cases. Peak estradiol level mean 13455-± 6632pmol/l and mean follicles count of 25.45 ± 8.78 confirmed a high response. Oocyte yield was 11.45+ Metaphase oocyte retrieved were 85.5% and cleavage rate of 93%. No case of early onset OHSS was identified. Only one patient developed moderate OHSS. Pregnancy rate was 31.25%. Miscarriage rate was 6.3% and ongoing pregnancy was 25%.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> This small retrospective descriptive analysis supports the view of current literature that GnRH trigger not only prevents early onset OHSS also achieves increase of M11 oocytes. In addition, pregnancy outcome is not statistically different to those cycles where hCG is used as trigger.</p> <p> </p> Safia Sultana, Misbah Sultana, Shazia Ashraf, Muhammad Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Safia Sultana Munir, Misbah Sultana, Shazia Ashraf, Muhammad Khan Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 CAN SHOE SIZE CORRECTLY PREDICT THE SIZE OF COMPONENTS OF TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT PRE-OPERATIVELY <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To ascertain the correlation between shoe size and sizes of femoral and tibial components of total knee replacement preoperatively in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.</p> <p><strong>Study design: </strong>Prospective cohort study</p> <p><strong>Study settings and duration: </strong>This study was conducted at department of orthopedic surgery, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad from July 2020 – December 2020.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods: </strong>Sample size was calculated using WHO calculator and it was 43 patients in total. Patients were approached through non-probability consecutive sampling. Shoe size of patients was measured using a Brannock device. During surgery, Implant model and sizes of the femoral and tibial components implanted during knee replacement were noted. Data was analyzed with the help of SPSS version 24. We applied Pearson’s correlation cofficeint. P value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 43, there were 9(20.9%) male and female 34(79.1%). Mean age of patients was 51.7±6.8 (SD). We found good positive correlation between shoe size and tibial component (p=&lt;0.001). Positive co relation was found between femoral component and shoe size (p=0.001). Shoe size predict 72% of Tibial component and 65% femoral component.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Shoe size is effective and safe predictors of total knee replacement components pre-operatively. This procedure is more accurate and less labor intensive. Accurate templating result in less surgical duration and provide several benefits to patients and health care providers.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Ahmed Furqan, Sohail Hafeez, Fahim Khan, Ali Asghar, Mahin Manzoor, Talha Kareem Copyright (c) 2023 Ahmed Furqan, Sohail Hafeez, Faheem Khan, Ali Asghar, Mahim Manzoor, Talha Kareem Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A rural community-based investigation to assess mHealth for family planning advice in district Multan <p><strong>Background:</strong> Globally, Pakistan is the 5th populous country. To increase the use of family planning services by public private business model, Punjab Population Innovation Fund selected <em>“Connect4fp”</em> project implemented by International Rescue Committee organization. The purpose of this research was to determine the impact of mobile health(mHealth) advice on family planning in project area. This project was implemented in 9 Union councils of district Multan, Pakistan. The innovative idea of this project was the use of mobile phones to spread family planning knowledge among community in the form of Interactive Voice Response (IVR) as well as Short Message Service (SMS) (i.e., text messages).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study targeted 197 men as well as women (mostly married women of reproductive age) receiving mobile messages or recorded robocalls from the project area. The purpose was to assess their family planning knowledge and awareness by using structured Likert scale questionnaire. Secondly the viewpoint about mHealth and its effect on family planning was determined from 40 private providers and 27 Family planning Champions (who were part of the project) by telephonic interviews. Their response was quantified by using Likert scale. Descriptive statistics were calculated of the study’s main variables. The association of family planning knowledge of community members was determined to their contraceptive use by using Chi square.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results specified that 60% community members included in this study told that their family planning knowledge is increased due to this mHealth program. 36% Private providers while 75% FP Champions were agreed that family planning patients are increased due to this mHealth program.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Mobile messages and robocalls about family planning sent in local language positively contributed to increase FP knowledge and awareness in community. This may trigger communication about family planning within couples, as a result increase use of family planning services.</p> <p> </p> Naveen Farooq, Nadia Rehman Alvi, Sana Mangrio, Syed Aftab Rahim, Zunaira Riaz Copyright (c) 2023 Naveen Farooq, Nadia Rehman Alvi, Sana Mangrio, Syed Aftab Rahim, Zunaira Riaz Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Frequency of Meningitis in Neonatal Sepsis <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of current study was to examine the frequency of meningitis in infants having late onset sepsis (LOS). Bacterial sepsis and meningitis endure to be leading causes of illness and mortality in neonates around the world, predominantly in preterm neonates. They must be discovered and cured as soon as possible to avoid death or disability.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The Cross-Sectional method was used to conduct a study.</p> <p>Duration and Place of Study: The study period was July to December 2021. Data was collected from Pak Emirates Military Hospital (PEMH) NICU Rawalpindi.</p> <p>Material and Method: The study comprised a total of 110 individuals, both male and female. All of them were older than 3 days and had been hospitalized and diagnosed with late onset sepsis. A neonate was diagnosed with meningitis if his or her cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) had &gt; 30 leukocytes/mm3 and any of these two: &gt;200 mg/dl protein or 40 mg/dl glucose.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 110 infants having LOS 38 were diagnosed with meningitis in which 21(55.2%) were male and 17(44.8%) were female. Overall mean weight of neonates was 2.38±1.72. A total of 24(63.1%) having low body weight and 22(57.8%) were premature. Meningitis was found to have a significant association with low bod weight and pre-term birth (p value&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Meningitis was considerably high in neonates with (LOS). Low body weight and pre-term birth had significant association with meningitis having (LOS).</p> <p> </p> Akber Anjum, Qudratullah Malik, Tariq Nadeem, Naeem Ullah, Farooq Ikram, Murtaza Hussain Copyright (c) 2023 Akber Hussain, Qudratullah Malik, Muhammad Tariq Nadeem, Naem Ullah, Farooq Ikram, Murtaza Hussain Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Frequency of Hepatitis B in Thalassemia Major Patients <p><strong>Background:</strong> Thalassemia is a set of inherited hematological illnesses caused by mutations in the genes that code for globin. Regular blood transfusions extend the lives of thalassemia patients, but they also increase the danger of blood-borne illness infections.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The current study was conducted to check the frequency and risk factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections among β thalassemia major patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study was conducted over a period of 3 months that is from November 2021 to February 2022 in the department of Thalassemia center CMH Rawalpindi. The study consists of thalassemia patients aged 6 months to 15 years including both male and female patients. Their venous blood was taken and transmitted to the laboratory, Armed force institute of pathology CMH Rawalpindi, for hepatitis B surface antigen test (HbsAg). Their demographic information was gathered, including their age, gender, number of blood transfusions received each year and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination status.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 100 patients there were 45 patients who were male and 55 patients who were female. The patients' ages span from 6 months to 15 years, with a mean age difference of 11.20 years and a standard deviation of 5.56. In three months, the mean difference in the number of blood transfusions received by patients was 22.7 6.6 SD. Patients under the age of ten were 50 percent of the time, and patients beyond ten were also 50 percent of the time (50 percent). Five (5%) of the total 100 patients tested positive for hepatitis B. In three months, the mean difference in the number of blood transfusions received by patients was 18.2 5.6 SD. Thirty (30%) patients out of a total of 100 were not immunized.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Frequency of hepatitis B in beta thalassemia major patients is minimal (less than 5 per 100) is seen in our study. To reduce the future risk of TTI, development of strong national and regional policies on safe blood transfusion procedures, VNRD-based transfusions, and universal quality-assured donor screening are recommended.</p> <p> </p> Akber Hussain, Qudrat Ullah Malik, Farooq Ikram, Naeem Ullah, Muhammad Tariq Nadeem, Murtaza Hussain Copyright (c) 2023 Akber Hussain, Qudratullah Malik, Farooq Ikram, Naem Ullah, Muhammad Tariq Nadeem, Murtaza Hussain Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 IMPACT OF COVID-19 HEALTH CARE EMERGENCY ON TRAUMA RELATED OUTCOMES <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the impact of Covid-19 healthcare emergency on trauma-related outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Cross-sectional observational study</p> <p><strong>Duration and Place of Study: </strong>Emergency department of surgery and allied of –removed for blind review----and from 1st March 2021 to 30th May 2021 for three months.</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods: </strong>A comparison was made between the number of trauma patients admitted to the emergency department during the pandemic and the patients admitted during the same period of the previous year in the same center (data extracted from hospital records). Furthermore, we compared trauma-related disorders, patterns of injuries, and clinical characteristics of trauma patients in our hospital during a pandemic with those in a non-pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The number of trauma patients in the pandemic was significantly lower than it was before Covid. Before Covid, 1520 (64.5%) were admitted to the emergency room (non-Covid group), whereas only 835 (35.5%) were admitted to the emergency room during the pandemic (Covid group). There was a 48 % reduction in total. Gender and age ratios did not differ much between the two groups. Between cohorts, there was a significant association between mechanism of injury and type of trauma (p&lt;0.03). Mortality rates decreased during the Covid-19 era (1.3% vs. 3.4%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>As a result of the Covid-19 outbreak, there was a 48% decrease in trauma patients admitted to hospitals and a decrease in their mortality as well. The findings of this study may open the new door to new ways of managing surgical emergencies without engulfing the already busy hospitals.</p> <p> </p> Fatima Mustafa, Mumtaz Ahmed Khan, Abdullah Mustafa, Khushal Khan, Muhammad Hassan Copyright (c) 2023 Fatima Mustafa, Mumtaz Ahmed Khan, Abdullah Mustafa, Khushal Khan, Muhammad Hassan Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 In vitro efficacy of fosfomycin against E. coli and prevalence of MDR and XDR E. coli isolates from UTI Patients <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The efficacy of fosfomycin against ESBL and/or carbapenem-resistant <em>E. coli</em> isolated from urine samples was determined.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Three hundred fifty (350) urine samples were collected from the patients having UTI visited to the department of Urology, JPMC, Karachi. The CLED agar was used for the primary isolation of uropathogens. Regular antimicrobial sensitivity testing was conducted in accordance with CLSI standards, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fosfomycin was assessed using E-strips.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 350 urine samples 213 (60.85%) were <em>E. coli</em>. Patients with <em>E. coli</em> had an average age of 38.75 15.01 years. Females are more prone to have UTI 146(68.54%). <em>E. coli</em> was highest among uropathogens having frequency of 213(60.85%). <em>E. coli</em> manifest highest resistance to ampicillin 187(87.79%) and low resistance to meropenem 12(5.63%), imipenem 15(7.51%) and fosfomycin 21(9.85%). The overall carbapenem resistant <em>E. coli</em> was 9(6.4%) and majority of (61.5%) fosfomycin resistant <em>E. coli</em>, MIC value was &gt;1024µg/ml. Isolates were categories in the non-MDR, MDR and XDR. Most of the isolates were MDR (53%), followed by the non-MDR (35%) and XDR (11%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In conclusion present study suggests that fosfomycin is still effective against <em>E. coli</em>. More than 50% <em>E. coli</em> isolates were MDR and it’s an alarming situation for urologist. </p> <p> </p> Farhina Nasir, Shahida Kashif, Fakhar Uddin, Muhammad Khalid, Ishtiaque Memon, Talat Samreen Copyright (c) 2023 Farhina Nasir, Shahida Kashif, Fakhur Uddin, Muhammad Khalid, Ishtiaque Memon, Talat Samreen Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Tocilizumab in reducing inflammatory response associated with COVID-19 pneumonia at Islamabad Medical Complex, Islamabad <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the effectiveness of Tocilizumab in covid-19 related severe pneumonia.</p> <p>Introduction: COVID-19 is a global health problem causing respiratory infection. This is triggered by IL-6 characterized by raised inflammatory markers that is called cytokine release storm. Severe disease leads to hospitalization, oxygen requirement and poor outcome.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This interventional study (descriptive analytic) was conducted from July-December 2021 at Intensive Care Unit, after ethical approval. Seventy cases of COVID-19 pneumonia with cytokine storm were included. Twenty cases were dropped either refusal to tocilizumab, pregnancy or having contraindication to tocilizumab, leaving 50 study participants. The patient’s demography, clinical, laboratory and radiological findings, timing and response variables of tocilizumab were recorded. The temporal readings of inflammatory markers, oxygen requirement and clinical status were compared at admission and after tocilizumab. SPSS version 25 was used for data analysis. Chi-square test was applied with significant p-value &lt; 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There was male predominance of 66% with mean age of 58.6±14.8 years. Mean day of illness and hospital stay was 8<sup>th</sup> day and 17.56 days respectively. C-reactive protein levels improved in all cases 50(100%) (p &lt;0.0001), ferritin in 31(62%) (0.019), D dimers in 28 (56%) (p0.014), LDH in 30(60%) (p 0.02) and interleukin-6 in 32(64%) (0.017. Survival benefit with tocilizumab was significant in patients that received within 10<sup>th</sup> day of illness (p 0.021). At discharge, 66.6% were off oxygen and 33.3% required domiciliary oxygen.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> COVID-19 Pneumonia with cytokine release storm bears high mortality. Significant improvement in inflammatory markers like CRP, ferritin, D-dimers and LDH shows effectiveness of tocilizumab. Early administration within 10 days of illness has survival benefits. </p> <p> </p> Abdul Naeem, Lubna Meraj, Nadia Shams, Mehr Fatima Rizvi, Muhammad Kamal, Muhammad Amir Copyright (c) 2023 Abdul Naeem, Lubna Meraj, Nadia Shams, Mehr Fatima Rizvi, Muhammad Kamal, Muhammad Amir Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Prevalence & Severity of Depression in patients with chronic obstructive airway disease <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the Prevalence &amp; Severity of depression in Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases (COPD) patients.</p> <p><strong>Background: </strong>Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease is a chronic heterogeneous disease that is also progressive. Depression is a common entity in chronic diseases. COPD causes long-term respiratory symptoms and depression is commonly found in these patients. The symptoms of these two diseases are overlapping and depression in COPD patients’ needs to be diagnosed and adequately treated. Untreated patients lead to poor control of respiratory symptoms and further deterioration of the illness. Our study aimed to determine prevalence and severity of depression in COPD patients using HAM-D score.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> This study was conducted in Medicine &amp; Pulmonology OPD, Fuji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi from August 2019 to February 2021. Using a cross sectional study design, a total of 169 cases of COPD were recruited and tested for the presence of absence of depression using the HAM-D rating scale and observations were recorded.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Total 169 patients recruited in this study with female &amp; male percentage of 59% and 47% respectively. The Mean duration of illness was 11.5 years ± 6.48. The incidence of Anxiety &amp; Depression was high (45% and 36%) in moderate to severe disease with total prevalence of 54 % among participants in the study.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Anxiety &amp; depression is commonly prevalent in COPD patients. Female patients are found to have more psychological disturbance irrespective to their COPD severity. Psychological impairment must be carefully evaluated in patients having COPD.</p> <p> </p> Shomaila Awan, Asma Ambreen, Nabila Zaheer, Asma Sabir, Sara Daud, Rizwan Athar Copyright (c) 2023 Shomaila Awan, Asma Ambreen, Nabila Zaheer, Asma Sabir, Sara Daud, Rizwan Athar Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 PLASMA DONATION AND PERCEPTION, ATTITUDE, BEHAVIOR OF COVID-19 PATIENTS: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY <p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Current study aims to identify the perception, attitude and behavior about Covid and plasma donation in the Covid cases.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY:</strong> This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted ---removed for blind review---Adult COVID-19/post-Covid patients were <em>included</em> by consecutive sampling. The critically ill, mechanically ventilated cases were <em>excluded.</em> Special questionnaire was developed including the demographic variables, mode of transmission, personal hygiene, prevention, post covid immunity, re-infection, psychosocial factors, financial reservations and post covid life. Willingness for plasma donation, laboratory diagnostics and blood groups inquired. Data was collected by direct interview by researcher and analyzed by SPSS V.20.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Mean age was 39.8<u>+</u>15 years; 122(54%) females and 104(46%) males. Total 163(73%) participants said Covid has impact on health, economy, social, mental and psychological state. 188(83%) considered Covid a threat to human life. 142(63%) had a close Covid contact and 15(6.6%) had recently travelled. 131(58%) said they could have prevented getting infected. 171(75.7%) considered handwashing and 208(92%) cleanliness and158(77%) considered natural, herbal remedies as preventive. 191(84.5%) wore mask for most/all of the time. 130(57.5%) said they will be immune to Covid post-recovery. 179(79.2%) were aware of re-infection. 169(74.8%) considered smoking as a risk for Covid and137(60.6%) aimed to quit smoking. 204(93%) committed to hand washing and 210(92.9%) to wearing masks post-Covid. 127(56%) were concerned about their food, 78(34.5%) about finances, 103(45.6%) about their family getting infected. 213(94%) expected life to normalize post-Covid. Most frequent blood group was B+ 67(29.6%) followed by A+ 42(18.6%) and O+ 41(18.1%). 128(66.6%) participants showed willingness to donate their plasma after recovery. 24(10.6%) refused the donation. 134(59.3%) agreed that plasma donation won’t reduce their immunity. 186(82.3%) were clinically recovered at the time of interview.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> Our Covid patients had a positive approach towards plasma donation. They expected normalization of life post Covid and showed commitment toward continuation of preventive habits and smoking cessation. However, there were significant concerns about finances, safety of loved ones and mental health.</p> <p> </p> Lubna Meraj, Muhammad Wajad Munir, Nadia Shams, Hina Andaleeb, Ayesha Basharat, Savida Ilyas Dar Copyright (c) 2023 Lubna Meraj, Muhammad Wajad Munir, Nadia Shams, Hina Andaleeb, Ayesha Basharat, Savida Ilyas Dar Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Intra-articular Platelet Rich Plasma versus Corticosteroid Injections for the Treatment of Moderate Knee Osteoarthritis <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To compare the efficacy of intra-articular injections of prednisolone acetate and platelet rich plasma in cases of moderate knee osteoarthritis.</p> <p><strong>Study design:</strong> Prospective comparative study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of study:</strong> Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Khairpur Medical College, Khairpur Mirs, from January 2021 till December 2021</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 100 patients were selected for the study and were randomly divided into two equal groups. Group C patients received intra-articular corticosteroid injection along with local anesthetic (Prednisolone acetate 40 mg + 3 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine) under ultrasound guidance. Group P patients received 3 injections of PRP, each of 8 ml volume given at one week’s interval. Patients with signs of hemodynamic compromise, sepsis, past history of any intra-articular injection in the same joint were also excluded from the study. Follow up of patients was carried out at 1, 3 and 6 months. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) scale was used to assess the patients prior to injection and then at each follow up. WOMAC scale consists of three subsets i-e pain, stiffness and physical function.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Demographic data was comparable between both groups. Pre-injection WOMAC score in group C and P was 71.54±12.18 and 75.20±8.58 respectively (p-value=0.086); after one month of injections, it was 34.20±10.48 and 35.38±6.31 respectively (p-value=0.580). After 3 months of injection, it was 33.20±8.13 and 31.10±5.50 respectively (p-value=0.195). After 6 months of injection, it was 35.32±10.41 and 32.10±6.63 respectively (p-value=0.68).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is concluded in our study that intra-articular injections of prednisolone acetate and PRP are equally effective in patients of moderate knee osteoarthritis.</p> <p> </p> Abdul Rasheed Napar, Naveed Ahmed Solangi, Mehtab Ali Shahni, Hafeezullah Ghumro, Naveed Ahmed Jumani, Aftab Hussain Copyright (c) 2023 Abdul Rasheed Napar, Naveed Ahmed Solangi, Mehtab Shahni, Hafeezullah Ghumro, Naveed Ahmed Jumani, Aftab Hussain Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating the learning environment in Dental colleges from students’ perspective; a qualitative exploratory research <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Learning environment has a great role in students learning, achievement and success. It is also essential for the development of curriculum. The aim of this study is to document the perception of dental students regarding their learning environment.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods:</strong> This qualitative research were conducted from Dec 2021 to May 2022, at four dental colleges of Rawalpindi. A total of 16 students from all these college who were regularly enrolled and voluntary participating in the study were included. Focus group interview (n=4 in each group) comprised of students from both basic sciences year (1st and 2nd year BDS) and clinical years (3rd and final year BDS). Data was transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was done.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Students overall expressed a good level of satisfaction with the learning environment but pointed out some issue which were summed up under major themes identified such as issues in lectures, issues in clinical teaching, issue in the dental curriculum and lack of academic motivation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study suggests that the dental students generally hold a positive perception towards their learning environment, but they pointed out the short comings in their lectures, clinical teaching, dental curriculum and dearth of motivation. Taking students view point regarding their learning environment will help the stake holders and policy makers to provide better learning environment with more facilities and support system for the students to enhance their learning.</p> <p> </p> Gulmina Saeed Orakzai, Syeda Munazza Gillani, Saima Irshad, MahRukh, Madeeha Nazar Tiwana, Sidra Shaukat Copyright (c) 2023 Gulmina Saeed Orakzai, Syeda Munazza Gillani, Saima Irshad, Mahrukh, Madeeha Nazar Tiwana, Sidra Shaukat Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Thyroidectomy with Drain and Without drain; A Clinical Comparative Study <p><strong>Background: </strong>Thyroidectomy is one of the most difficult surgical procedures. The study aims to compare the thyroidectomy procedure with drain placement and without drain concerning the hospital stay, Postoperative complications, and pain assessment using a visual analog scale.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A prospective comparative study was designed in the Department of otorhinolaryngology &amp; Head Neck Surgery---removed for blind review----. A total of 117 patients were enrolled in the study from which 9 were excluded due to loss of follow-up. The patients were divided into two groups by using computer-generated randomized numbers containing sealed envelopes. Both groups contained 54 patients. Group A patients with a drain placed while group B contained patients without a drain. The patients with drain have a longer hospital stay and reported increased pain as compared to the patients with drainless thyroidectomy.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean age and standard deviation calculated for the patients enrolled in both groups after randomization was 13.28 42.5 and 12.18 43.9 in groups A and B respectively. The mean ages were statistically insignificant. However, Postoperative variables such as length of hospital stay and post-operative pain by visual analog scale were assessed. The hospital stays of the patients with a drain placed was found statistically significant with a P-value &lt; 0.05 Postoperative pain assessed by visual analog scale was also significant having a P-value &lt;0.05 for patients having stayed for 2 to 4 days.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Placement of drain after thyroidectomy saves the patient from life-threatening complications but at the same time increases the post-operative pain on day one and increases the length of hospital stay of the patient. The routine practice of drain placement should be avoided unless there must be a risk of the development of hematoma or seroma.</p> <p> </p> Muhammad Saleem, Sarwat Saba, Khurram Saqib, Ashar Alamgir, Sumara Tabassam, Zakariya Rashid Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Saleem, Sarwat Saba, Khurram Saqib, Ashar Alamgir, Sumara Tabassam, Zakariya Rashid Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Association of Central Corneal Thickness among Myopic and Emmetropic Patients Visiting Ophthalmology Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Islamabad. <p><strong>Aim </strong>The aim of the study was to determine difference between central corneal thickness (CCT) among myopic and emmetropic eyes. </p> <p><strong>Material and Methods</strong><strong> </strong>A total of 186 participants participated in this comparative cross-sectional study. Sample size was calculated using the WHO calculator and enrolled by consecutive sampling technique. Detail eye examinations were performed of anterior and posterior segments with slit-lamp and refractive status were determined with Auto-refractometer (Nidek ARK 1a) and Pachymetry with Specular Microscope (Topcon SP2000P). The analysis of data was performed in SPSS 22. </p> <p><strong>Results </strong>To carry out the study, 186 candidates volunteered their time and effort. Male and female participants were included in the study. About 56% of the candidates were men, and 44% were women. Individuals' ages varied from 16 to 49, on average (16-49). As for the control group, the average central corneal thickness was 522.30 microns and standard deviation of ± 29.563. Their sizes varied from 439 microns to 619 microns. The average CCT of myopic people was 515.18 microns, and the standard deviation was ±28.972 microns. The relationship between CCT in myopic eyes and CCT in emmetropic eyes was analysed using a paired t test. The P value was only 0.09, the relevance of the test was not significant. </p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong><strong> </strong>CCT difference between myopic and emmetropic eyes was no statistically significant (P 0.09). </p> <p> </p> Sufian Ali Khan, Muthair Shah, Ahad Sharif, Saif Ullah, Anjum Imdad, Ayesha Khalid Copyright (c) 2023 Sufian Ali Khan, Mutahir Shah, Ahad Sharif, Saif Ullah, Anjum Imdad, Ayesha Khalid Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 360-degree Evaluation of Postgraduate residents at Rawalpindi Medical University: Appraising the achievement of core competencies by comparing the scores of 1st & <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To compare 360-degree evaluation scores of postgraduate residents during 1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd</sup> cycles of evaluation to analyze the acquisition of core competencies.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional analytical study was done to compare the acquisition of core competencies as per ACGME by MS/MD residents in 3 public sector teaching hospitals of Rawalpindi. The enrolled residents undergone 1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd</sup> cycle of 360-degree evaluation from Jan-June 2018 and July 2018 -Jan 2019 respectively. The data was gathered from supervisors, faculty, nursing staff, patients and their attendants by structured proforma. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 25.0. Specialty-wise scores were statistically presented with 95% CI. Differences in scores of core competencies during both cycles were determined by independent sample t-test. P &lt; 0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> About 93 and 113 trainees were evaluated during 1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd</sup> cycle of evaluation respectively. Most (41.70%) of them were 1<sup>st</sup> year residents. 2<sup>nd</sup> cycle of evaluation revealed statistically significant improvement (P&lt;0.00001) in all 6 core competencies. Feedback from the patients also illustrated significant difference in scores of both cycles (P = 0.01). Trainees of MS Surgery &amp; Allied programs were determined as highly competent with 250.06 ± 38.57 score followed by those of MD Medicine &amp; Allied (247.59 ± 42.15) and Gynecology &amp; Obstetrics (246.71 ± 46.26) out of total score of 331. Residents of HFH and DHQ Hospital had statistically significant enhancement of competencies (P&lt;0.0001) than those of BBH (P=0.003).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There was substantial enhancement of core competencies among postgraduate trainees.</p> <p> </p> Rizwana Shahid, Rabbia Kahlid, Muhammad Umar, Sadia Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Rizwana Shahid, Rabbia Khalid, Muhammad Umar, Sadia Khan Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Emotional Distress Among Pediatric Cancer Patients and their Siblings <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> Cancer being a serious chronic illness, causes profound effects on physical and mental health of the individual as well as affects their caregivers and family members' mental health. This study aims to find out the burden of emotional distress in patients of childhood cancer as well as their healthy siblings.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods: </em></strong>It was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Parents of the children undergoing cancer treatment or having completed treatment within past one year were asked to complete an interview proforma (Pediatric Emotional Distress Scale) about their child’s behaviour over past one month, scoring each behaviour on a scale of 1 to 5 according to the frequency of symptoms. The data was then analysed using SPSS 20. The frequency distribution, central tendencies and standard deviations were calculated accordingly.</p> <p><strong><em>Results: </em></strong>Almost eighty-five% of the patients showed scores above the clinical threshold for emotional distress. Eighteen% of the healthy siblings also had scores above the clinical threshold. Patients as well as their healthy siblings showed high levels of anxiousness in their behaviours.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions</em></strong></p> <ul> <li>Childhood cancer is a cause of major emotional trauma in patients.</li> <li>Age-matched siblings usually cope well with the illness.</li> </ul> <p> </p> Ruqayya Manzoor, Nuzhat Yasmeen, Hijab Shaheen, Nazia Mushtaq Copyright (c) 2023 Ruqayya Manzoor, Nuzhat Yasmeen, Hijab Shaheen, Nazia Mushtaq Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Clinicopathological features of different Histopathological Subtypes and Stages of Wilms Tumor <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Wilms tumor is the most common pediatric renal neoplasm. Following preoperative therapy, various histological subtypes, risks and clinical stages are determined as per following SIOP 2001 protocol. To determine the clinicopathological features of different histopathological subtypes and stages of Wilms tumor after completing course of preoperative as well as postoperative chemotherapy following SIOP 2001 protocol.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This is a retrospective cross-sectional study and sample size calculated by non-probability technique. Ninety-three patients with abdominal masses in the Hematology/Oncology Department were included. After radiological and histopathological diagnosis, four weeks of preoperative chemotherapy, given to patients, followed by partial and radical nephrectomies by surgical team. Specimens received in Histopathology Department grossed and microscopically examined for different post chemotherapy histological subtypes. Further risk categorization and clinicopathological staging in accordance with SIOP 2001, done after completion of treatment. Patients called for yearly follow up for the next five years. Categorical variables are presented as frequencies and percentages.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Mean age of ninety-three children was 44.4 months <u>+</u> 30.92with predominance of males (55.9%) and more common in right sided kidney (55.9%). Majority patients completed the entire course of treatment (77.4%). Majority were intermediate risk tumors (76.3%) and most common histological subtype was Mixed Tumor subtype (23.4%). In our study majority, tumors were stage III (48.3%) and patients died due to febrile neutropenia (9.6%)</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In our study the majority of patients completed the entire course of treatment and relapse was fairly less. Patients lost to follow up after nephrectomy and deaths at home caused by febrile neutropenia were our major challenges.</p> <p> </p> Alia Ahmad, Aysha Anjum, Imran Hashim, Mahvish Hussain, Samina Zaman, Fariha Sahrish Copyright (c) 2023 Alia Ahmad, Aysha Anjum, Imran Hashim, Amber Goraya, Farrakh Mehmood Satar, Fariha Sahrish Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Adult Hemophiliacs in Pakistan: Health-Related Quality of Life and Psychological Aspects <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) (in hemophilia A) or IX (FIX) (in hemophilia B) deficiency associated with the X chromosome is the primary cause of hemophilia. Bleeding carried on by hemophilia can have an impact on a patient's mental health and quality of life. Recurrent bleeds in their muscles and joints cause hemophilia patients to experience constant pain. Certain variables, such as depression brought on by low self-esteem in comparison to "normal" siblings and peers, may have an impact on hemophilia patients. </p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The goal of this investigation is to assess how psychological factors and pain affect adult hemophiliac patients' well-being.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> On 102 hemophiliacs, a cross-sectional study was done. Data were gathered using visual analogue scales for pain, depression anxiety stress assessments, and quality of life questionnaires specific to hemophilia. Regression analysis, analysis of covariance, and correlation coefficients were used to analyze the data. <strong>Results:</strong> According to the findings, 70.8% of hemophiliac patients felt pain on the research day. Patients with hemophilia had an average HRQoL score of 50.08 (standard deviation: 18.49). Additionally, stress, worry, and mild to serious depression were present in 45.7 %, 63.5% and 58.3% of the patients, respectively. Additionally, a substantial correlation between HRQoL and sadness, anxiety, and pain intensity were found. The study variables were able to explain 47% of changes in HRQOL in the regression model, with depression and pain intensity serving as important predictors. Conclusion: To enhance the psychosocial health and quality of life of patients, emphasis should be given to these factors.</p> <p> </p> Eesha Yaqoob, Zonaira Mushahid, Muhammad Asad Asif, Muhammad Ishfaq, Maheen Sabah, Mishal Waseem Copyright (c) 2023 Eesha Yaqoob, Zonaira Mushahid, Muhammad Asad Asif, Muhammad Ishfaq, Maheen Sabah, Mishal Waseem Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Establishing normal range of fetal renal artery RI and PI values in singleton pregnancies during 18-38 weeks of gestation <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Human kidney constitutes an integral organ during the period of embryogenesis. The use of regular ultrasound during antenatal follow ups not only assesses structural aspects of fetal body but can also evaluate functional integrity of developing organs to some extent. Unfortunately, fetal renal hemodynamics has been studied more in western population which have better socio-economic status as well as good antenatal care. Our study aims at establishing a normal reference range for fetal renal artery indices in healthy Pakistani pregnant population which has not been done before.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY:</strong> This is a nonprobability convenient study investigating 130 healthy pregnant women during 18-38weeks of gestation. Resistivity and pulsatility indices (RI and PI) of the fetal renal arteries were evaluated dividing the patients in four groups as per their gestational age. Normal reference ranges of RI and PI values were established. P values for RI and PI were also being calculated.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Mean values of the RI and PI of the fetal renal arteries were calculated. P value for RI is 0.05 and PI is 0.69. Hence the values remain unaltered with advancing gestational age.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> These reference ranges demonstrate the minimal change of the fetal renal hemodynamics during healthy pregnancies pertinent to our reference population. These may be applicable in antenatal practice to identify deviations from these reference ranges and will be beneficial in further studies related to prediction of fetal renal function.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Beenish Nadeem, Naushaba Malik, Anam Zahoor Copyright (c) 2023 Beenish Nadeem, Naushaba Malik, Anam Zahoor Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-Hyperlipidemic Effect of Zinc complex of Betulinic acid in High Fat Diet- Induced Hyperlipidemia <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hyperlipidemia is considered a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Drugs of first choice, Statins, despite being well tolerable, are accompanied by many adverse effects. To tackle the shortcomings of standard drugs, there is dire demand to make an agent which equates to a better response. This study evaluated the anti-hyperlipidemic and comparative effects of Zinc complex of Betulinic acid (Zn+BA) with simvastatin (SIM), on high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rats, and the safety profile of the two treatments was also assessed.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Hyperlipidemia was induced by giving a high-fat diet. BA +Zn 10 mg/kg and SIM 20 mg/kg were given orally for four weeks. On the final day terminal sampling was done and serum lipid profile (TG, TC, LDL, HDL) and hepatic enzymes (ALT) for assessing hepatotoxicity were estimated. Results: Our results showed that BA+Zn significantly increased HDL levels and significantly reduced serum TC, TG, and LDL (p&lt;0.001) as compared to Simvastatin. Correspondingly serum ALT levels also showed significant reduction (p&lt;0.001) in comparison with Simvastatin.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our study suggests that BA+Zn effectively attenuates high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia while preserving hepatic function and could serve as a better alternative to simvastatin in treating hyperlipidemia.</p> <p> </p> Mehwish Tayyab, Adnan Jehangir, Farhana Ayub, Nimra Ijaz, Sameer Ahmed`, Attiya Munir Copyright (c) 2023 Mehwish Tayyab, Adnan Jehangir, Farhana Ayub, Nimra Ijaz, Sameer Ahmed, Attiya Munir Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ULTRASOUND AS AN AID TO DIAGNOSIS IN DENGUE <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the ultrasound findings in patients with dengue fever and to evaluate their relationship with laboratory parameters.</p> <p><strong>Study Design and Setting:</strong> This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at –removed for blind review---from September 2020 to August 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Total of 248 patients diagnosed with dengue fever, fulfilling the exclusion and inclusion criteria, were included in the study. Demographic data was recorded on a structured proforma. Serological confirmation along with complete blood counts and liver function tests were obtained. Abdominal and chest ultrasounds were conducted in all patients. The ultrasonographic features of these patients were analyzed with laboratory investigations through SPSS version 23. Student’s t-test and Chi-square tests were used assessingess the association between the ultrasonographic findings and laboratory features. A P-value of &lt;0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The most common ultrasonographic feature among dengue patients was acalculous cholecystitis (49.6%) followed by hepatomegaly (47.2%), splenomegaly (46.8%), altered echotexture of the liver (46.4%), ascites (37.5%) and pleural effusion (7.3%).</p> <p>Acalculous cholecystitis and ascites were significantly associated with severe thrombocytopenia and increasing hematocrit. Acalculous cholecystitis, ascites, pleural effusion and altered echotexture of the liver were associated with raised transaminases.</p> <p>A low platelet count showed the strongest relationship with sonographic features of capillary leak syndrome.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Ultrasound is a useful investigation to diagnose severe, critical dengue. The development of ultrasonographic features should prompt proactive management of these patients in order to prevent emergence of severe complicated dengue.</p> <p> </p> Fatimah Kashif Rasool, Ahmed Kashif Rasool, Lubna Meraj, Farhat Bashir Copyright (c) 2022 Kashif, Kashif, Lubna Meraj, Farhat Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Cage versus Iliac Bone Graft undergoing Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF): A multicenter experience <p>Background:<br>In anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), the two most frequently used materials are allografts and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages. The aim of the study was to compare the functional and radiological outcomes of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages with iliac crest allografts in anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) in patients of symptomatic Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM).<br>Methods:<br>In this cohort study, we included 70 (35 in each group) patients of symptomatic CSM having degenerative cervical disc disease who were planned for ACDF from Jan-2017 to Jan-2021 in Rawalpindi Medical University. All procedures were performed under general anesthesia in supine position, standard ACDF technique was used in all patients. Anterior cervical locked plates were used for fixation of PEEK cages or the iliac allografts in the inter-vertebral space. Radiologic and functional outcomes were determined till 6 months after surgery. <br>Results:<br>The baseline study characteristics were similar between the groups. Mean Modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (MJOA) score at 06 months’ follow-up was same between the groups; 14.16±4.30 in group A and 13.54±3.24 in group B (p-value 0.49). Disc space height at 06 months’ follow-up was also similar between the groups; 10.01±0.67 mm in group A versus 10.11±0.70 mm in group B (p-value 0.54). Fusion rate at final follow-up was 31 (88.6%) in group A versus 30 (85.7%) in group B (p-value 0.72).<br>Conclusion:<br>PEEK cages have similar functional and radiologic outcomes in comparison to ileal crest allografts. So, PEEK cages can be used as a successful alternative to ileal crest allografts this will help to reduce donor site morbidity and will reduce longer surgical times associated with graft harvesting.</p> Soban Sarwar Gondal, Saad Javed, Ali Tasaaduq Hussain Minhas, Rana Mohsin Khan, Yasir Shehzad, Nadeem Akhtar Copyright (c) 2023 Saad Javed, Soban Sarwar Gondal, Saad Javed, Ali Tassadaq Hussain Minhas, Rana Mohammad Mohsin Khan, Yasir Shehzad, Nadeem Akhtar Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Diagnostic Accuracy of Serum Prostate Specific Antigen and Gleason Score in Determining the Presence of Skeletal Metastasis in Prostate Cancer Patients: a Pakistani Perspective <p><strong>Objective:</strong></p> <p>To determine the cut-off values for serum Prostate Specific Antigen and Gleason score for predicting bone metastasis of Prostate cancer.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>This diagnostic accuracy study was conducted in Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad from 2015 to 2018. 330 patients of Prostate cancer were enrolled in the study. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) and Gleason Scores (GS) were determined using commercially available ELECSYS® assays in the Modular Analytics E170 (Roche Diagnostics) and histopathology respectively. Tc99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) was used to perform the Bone scan. Any correlation between these variables was nvestigated to determine a cut-off value for PSA and GS.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>Out of the total 330 patients included in the sample, BS was positive for metastasis in 186 (56.4%) patients and negative in 144 (43.6%) patients. Amongst these 186 positive patients, 5 (2.7%) had PSA &lt; 20 ng/ml, 174 (93.5%) had PSA between 20 and 90 ng/ml, and 9 (4.8%) had PSA &gt; 90 ng/ml. Out of the 144 patients with negative BS, 142 (98.6%) had PSA &lt; 20ng/ml. Only 2 (1.4%) had PSA in the range of 20 and 90 ng/ml, while none had PSA &gt; 90 ng/ml. In the 147 patients with PSA &lt; 20 ng/ml, 142 (96.6%) did not have any skeletal metastases. Of the 183 patients with PSA &gt; 20 ng/ml, 181 (98.9%) had positive bone scans. Using a cut-off value of 20 ng/ml for serum PSA, 142 unnecessary scans would have been unnecessary.</p> <p>Out of the 186 patients with positive bone scan (BS), 3 (1.6%) patients had GS &lt; 7, 160 (86.0%) patients had GS between 7 and 9, and 23 (12.4%) patients had GS &gt; 9. Out of the 144 patients with negative BS, 84 (58.3%) had GS &lt; 7, 60 (41.7%) had GS between 7 and 9, and none of the patients had a GS more than 9. Of the 87 patients with GS &lt; 7, 3 (3.4%) patients had a positive BS while 84 (96.6%) patients had a negative BS. Of the 243 patients with GS &gt; 7, 183 (75.3%) had a positive BS while 60 (24.7%) patients had a negative GS. These results indicate that a GS &gt; 7 cannot be reliably used to rule in the need for a BS in patients with Prostate cancer.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>Our study reports that serum PSA &lt; 20 ng/ml can be safely used to omit a bone scan. It also suggests that Gleason Score &lt; 7 nullifies the need to conduct a bone scan. However, serum PSA is a better and more reliable indicator of bone metastases as it has better sensitivity and specificity values as compared to GS. If these results are applied in hospitals all over the country, we can significantly reduce the burden on our resources and prevent unnecessary, low-yield diagnostic tests from being carried out.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Taimoor Nasir, Syeda Neha Aamer, Saman Waqar, Wafa Omer Copyright (c) 2023 Wafa Omer Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Reperfusion on Time Domain Parameters of Heart Rate Variability <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To compare effect of reperfusion by measuring time domain parameters of heart rate variability before and after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. <strong>Study design: </strong>Quasi experimental study design <strong>Place and Duration:</strong> Department of Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology, Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology/National Institute of Heart Diseases (AFIC/NIHD), Rawalpindi from January 2014 till January 2015. <strong>Patients and Methods: </strong>40 patients with coronary artery disease having mean age of 55.20 ± 8.03 years were recruited by non-probability convenience sampling. DMS 300-4A Holter monitors were used to obtain 24 hours ambulatory ECG recording before and within 24 hours after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Digital ECG data were transferred to the computer and edited with the help of DMS Cardioscan software. Heart rate variability was analysed in time domains measures. For time domain analysis normal heart rate, SDNN, SDNNi, SDANN, RMSSD and pNN50 were recorded from 12 lead digital ECG data.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results of our study demonstrated significantly decreased heart rate variability in coronary artery disease patients on comparison of pre and post-angioplasty values only SDNNi was significantly reduced (p-value = 0.035) whereas the reduction in SDNN and pNN50 was statistically insignificant (p-value &gt; 0.05). On the contrary, SDANN and RMSSD displayed slight rise after angioplasty but it was not significant (p-value &gt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Reperfusion after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty decreases heart rate variability within 24 hours after the procedure. Whereas, heart rate during the same period after angioplasty increases. This reflects autonomic balance shifts towards sympathetic predominance as indicated by reduced heart rate variability and rise in heart rate. This makes the susceptible patients vulnerable for development of ventricular arrhythmias especially during 24 hours after angioplasty. Therefore, patients with decreased heart rate variability are at risk of ventricular arrhythmogenesis so they may be kept under medical surveillance for at least 24 hours after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.</p> Sadia Mubarak, Bushra Riaz, Mehvish Ashfaq, Sidra Hamid, Amina Rasul, Mamoona Shafiq Copyright (c) 2023 SIDRA HAMID SIDRA HAMID Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 RENAL ARTERY ANEURYSM – A CASE REPORT FROM KP <p>Renal artery aneurysm (RAA) is a rare lesion and occurs in less than 1% of the population. There are multiple available treatment options which depend on the type of aneurysm and the timely diagnoses of the condition. Understanding these options is important; endovascular techniques, renal auto-transplantation and nephrectomy maybe indicated. A case of RAA in the left renal artery which was surgically treated with radical nephrectomy because of the nature of the presentation which was an emergency and was managed swiftly to save the patient’s life.</p> Omer Nasim, Zainab Rustam, Zubair Ahmed Khan, Jamil Ahmad Copyright (c) 2023 RENAL ARTERY ANEURYSM – A CASE REPORT FROM KP RENAL ARTERY ANEURYSM – A CASE REPORT FROM KP Sun, 02 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000