CDX-2 expression in colorectal cancer: A single centre study from Pakistan
Introduction: Tumors of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, share a major burden for mortality and morbidity all over the world. The most common site of carcinoma of GIT is colon and rectum (70%). The etiological factors may be environmental (diet) and genetic. CDX-2 has been proposed as being present in most of the cases with colorectal carcinoma.
Objective: To determine the frequency of positive expression of CDX2 in diagnosed cases of colorectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed on haematoxylin and eosin stain.
Material and Methods:
This was a cross-sectional study and was conducted at ---(deleted for blind review)--- over period of 2 years We included all paraffin embedded tissue sections of colorectal carcinoma of both genders with an age range of 25-75 years. Specimens were stained with Heamatoxylin and Eosin (H & E) and examined microscopically for presence or absence of invasive cancer. Another specimen was taken and stained with CDX2. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 24.
Results: A total of 125 cases with colorectal carcinoma diagnosed on H & E stain were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was found to be 52.66 ± 14.62 years. In this study, 67 patients (53.6%) were male and 58 patients (46.4%) were having final diagnosis of Adenocarcinoma. Regarding the site, most common lesion involved rectum, followed by sigmoid colon and ascending colon. Among 125 specimens reviewed, 112 patients (89.6%) were CDX-2 positive while 13 patients (10.4%) were CDX-2 negative. Also we stratified the CDX-2 expression according to site and type of colorectal carcinoma and was found significant for both of these (P<0.05).
Conclusion: We concluded that CDX-2 was present in almost 90% of colorectal carcinoma specimens so it can be used as an important diagnostic tool for colorectal carcinoma during histopathological diagnosis.
Keywords: Colorectal carcinoma; CDX-2; Hematoxylin; Eosin