Clinico-Histological presentation of Head and Neck Lesions in a Tertiary Care Hospital
Objective: This study aimed to see the clinical presentation and histological pattern of various head and neck lesions.
Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in the Department of Pathology, Bannu Medical College in association with the Department of Surgery and ENT, Khalifa Gul Nawaz Teaching Hospital, Bannu. A total of 184 cases of head and neck lesions biopsy were subjected to histopathological diagnosis. Patients' age, gender, anatomical location, and other relevant necessary clinical findings were recorded on an already designed proforma. All biopsies were received in 10% buffered formalin, fixed overnight, and processed for histopathological examination and diagnosis. Inclusion criteria were patients with head and neck lesions including skin, salivary gland, lymph node, and oral cavity of any age and gender. Exclusion criteria were thyroid, nasal cavity lesions, autolysed, and insufficient biopsy specimen.
Results: In this study, the mean age was 28.58 ± 17.34 years, and the age range was from 10 to 80 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1.3:1. The most common age group was 36-45 years followed by 46-55 years and 26-35 years etc. The most common inflammatory lesion was granulomatous lymphadenitis 14.67% followed by reactive lymphoid hyperplasia 9.23%. Common benign lesions were pleomorphic adenoma 5.97% followed by lipoma and hemangioma 3.80% and 3.26% respectively. Amongst malignant lesions basal cell carcinoma 23.91% of the face was the commonest lesion followed by squamous cell carcinoma 22.28% of the oral cavity.
Conclusion: This study show spectrum of lesions from inflammatory to benign and malignant, occurring in the head and neck region. Malignant lesions are more common as compared to benign and inflammatory lesions, basal cell carcinoma of the skin is the commonest malignant lesion followed by squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and oral cavity.
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