Comparison of Features of Corona Virus in Confirmed and Unconfirmed Patients In Lahore

  • Muhammad Imran Hasan Khan Ameer ud Din Medical College / PGMI, Lahore
  • Muhammad Maqsood Ameer ud Din Medical College / PGMI, Lahore
  • Muzammal Aslam Kataria Jinnah Hospital, Lahore
  • Asif Sagheer Ameer ud Din Medical College / PGMI, Lahore General Hospital
  • Abdul Basit Ameer ud Din Medical College / PGMI, Lahore General Hospital
  • Zohaib Abbas Khan Director Technical (Addl), Drug Testing Laboratory, Punjab
Keywords: Coronavirus, Confirmed, Features, Fatigue, Antibiotic.

Abstract

Introduction: Coronavirus has spread rapidly in Pakistan. These patients were kept at quarantine facilities on suspicion, even before RT-PCR was done. We were able to collect clinical, laboratory, and management features from them. 

Objective: To assess the features of Corona confirmed and unconfirmed patients, and compare them. It could help in deciding if confirmed and unconfirmed patients were correctly identified and managed appropriately.

Material and Methods: Retrospective, Descriptive, Crossectional study between 8th April to 30th April 2020. Patient data was collected from different sites retrospectively, on a Performa. Clinical, Laboratory, and Management data as collected. It was analyzed on SPSS 23. All patients in quarantines and ICU were included, irrespective of their corona PCR status, if the treating physicians had a strong suspicion. Home quarantine and less than 15-year old patients were excluded.

Results: Clinical features showed more preponderance for males and smokers. Chronic disease patients were also significantly involved. Fatigue, nasal congestion, runny nose, sickness, and vomiting were more common in confirmed patients. CURB 65 scores 3 and 4 were more in unconfirmed patients. CT involvement was more common in unconfirmed patients as was high white cells and neutrophils. More patients had mechanical ventilation in the unconfirmed group, and they also had more secondary infections and shock. Antibiotic use was more common in the confirmed group.

Conclusion: Corona was more common in males and smokers. Though fever and cough were common, the presence of fatigue, runny nose, nasal congestion sickness, and vomiting discriminated confirmed patients. Antibiotics should be used irrespective of RT-PCR results, especially if CT showed an abnormality.

 

References

1. 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Pakistan. In: Wikipedia [Internet]. 2020. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2020_coronavirus_pandemic_in_Pakistan&oldid=949465193
2. Wang HJ, Du SH, Yue X, Chen CX. Review and Prospect of Pathological Features of Corona Virus Disease. Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2020 Feb 25;36(1):16–20. DOI: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2020.01.004
3. Estimating the asymptomatic proportion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases on board the Diamond Princess cruise ship, Yokohama, Japan, 2020 [Internet]. [cited 2020 Apr 7]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7078829/ DOI: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.10.2000180
4. Clinician Beliefs and Attitudes Regarding Use of Respiratory Protective Devices and Surgical Masks for Influenza [Internet]. [cited 2020 Apr 7]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4648351/ DOI: 10.1089/hs.2015.0011
5. Positive Externalities of an Epidemic: The Case of the Corona Virus (COVID-19) in China - PubMed [Internet]. [cited 2020 Apr 7]. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32243592/?from_term=corona+and+economy&from_filter=ds1.y_5&from_page=4&from_pos=1 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.25830
6. Liu K, Chen Y, Lin R, Han K. Clinical features of COVID-19 in elderly patients: A comparison with young and middle-aged patients. J Infect [Internet]. 2020 Mar 27; Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7102640/ DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.005
7. Cao J, Hu X, Cheng W, Yu L, Tu W-J, Liu Q. Clinical features and short-term outcomes of 18 patients with corona virus disease 2019 in intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med. 2020 Mar 2;1–3. DOI: 10.1007/s00134-020-05987-7
8. Guo Y-R, Cao Q-D, Hong Z-S, Tan Y-Y, Chen S-D, Jin H-J, et al. The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak – an update on the status. Mil Med Res [Internet]. 2020 Mar 13;7. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7068984/ DOI: 10.1186/s40779-020-00240-0
9. Qin C, Zhou L, Hu Z, Zhang S, Yang S, Tao Y, et al. Dysregulation of immune response in patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. Clin Infect Dis Off Publ Infect Dis Soc Am [Internet]. 2020 Mar 12; Available from: DOI:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7108125/ DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa248
10. Vardavas CI, Nikitara K. COVID-19 and smoking: A systematic review of the evidence. Tob Induc Dis [Internet]. 2020 Mar 20;18. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7083240/ DOI: 10.18332/tid/119324
11. Wichmann D, Sperhake J-P, Lütgehetmann M, Steurer S, Edler C, Heinemann A, et al. Autopsy Findings and Venous Thromboembolism in Patients With COVID-19. Ann Intern Med [Internet]. 2020 May 6; Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240772/ DOI: 10.7326/M20-2003
12. Li Y, Yao L, Li J, Chen L, Song Y, Cai Z, et al. Stability issues of RT‐PCR testing of SARS‐CoV‐2 for hospitalized patients clinically diagnosed with COVID‐19. J Med Virol [Internet]. 2020 Apr 5; Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228231/ DOI: 10.1002/jmv.25786
13. Jin X, Lian J-S, Hu J-H, Gao J, Zheng L, Zhang Y-M, et al. Epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics of 74 cases of coronavirus-infected disease 2019 (COVID-19) with gastrointestinal symptoms. Gut [Internet]. 2020 Jun; Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7133387/ DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2020-320926
14. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet Lond Engl. 2020;395(10223):507–13. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7
15. Rothan HA, Byrareddy SN. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. J Autoimmun. 2020 May;109:102433. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102433
16. Misra DP, Agarwal V, Gasparyan AY, Zimba O. Rheumatologists’ perspective on coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and potential therapeutic targets. Clin Rheumatol. 2020 Apr 10;1–8. DOI: 10.1007/s10067-020-05073-9
17. Yazdany J, Kim AHJ. Use of Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine During the COVID-19 Pandemic: What Every Clinician Should Know. Ann Intern Med [Internet]. 2020 Mar 31; Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7138336/ DOI: 10.7326/M20-1334
Published
2020-06-26
How to Cite
1.
Khan MIH, Maqsood M, Kataria M, Sagheer A, Basit A, Khan Z. Comparison of Features of Corona Virus in Confirmed and Unconfirmed Patients In Lahore. JRMC [Internet]. 26Jun.2020 [cited 4Jul.2020];24(2):166-72. Available from: http://journalrmc.com/index.php/JRMC/article/view/1405
Section
Articles