Breakfast practices and factors associated with skipping of breakfast in medical students

  • Saleemullah Abro
  • Quratulain Saleem KMDC
  • Jahanzaib Lashari
  • Gulnaz Khalid
  • Maham Khan
  • Fatima Malik
Keywords: Body Mass Index, Breakfast, Gender, Skipping Breakfast, Medical students.


Objectives: To find out the breakfast practices and factors associated with skipping breakfast in medical students of Karachi.
Material and Methods: This is is a Descriptive cross-sectional study, conducted in public sector medical institutes of Karachi from 1st January to 31st March 2019. 382 medical students were enrolled after taking informed consent. Data were collected from included students of this study, who had an age of 18 to 24 years, and all other students having a history of lactose intolerance, anorexia nervosa, and food allergies were excluded from the study. Breakfast outcome (practices and skip or omit of breakfast) data were collected by self-made structured questionnaire and anthropometric data (height, weight) were recorded. Body mass index was calculated as weight (Kg)/height (m)2. Collected data were analyzed by using the Statistical Package for social sciences version 22.
Results: The mean age and mean Body mass index of students were 20.83±1.54 and 15.53±3.5 respectively. The study outcomes on breakfast practices, among participants, showed 81.4% were taken breakfast, breakfast skippers were 18.6%, gender-based comparison between breakfast-skippers males (14.1%): females (85.9%) were respectively and shortage of time is the main factor (56.3%) associated with breakfast skipping in students. There is no significant (p>0.05) association between Gender-based comparison between factors associated with breakfast skipping.
Conclusion: The breakfast skippers were 18.6%, and among the main factors associated with skipping of breakfast was a shortage of time (56.3%).


1. Timlin MT, Pereira MA. Breakfast frequency and quality in the etiology of adult obesity and chronic diseases. Nutr Rev 2007; 65:268–8110.
2. Cho S, Dietrich M, Brown CJP, Clark CA, Block G. The effect of breakfast type on total daily energy intake and body mass index: results from the third national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES III). J Am CollNutr. 2003;22(4):296–302.
3. Behrens B. Is breakfast or breakfast skipping associated with adiposity in adults? Methodological considerations. CFS Honors Program Undergraduate Theses. 2009 May 1:1.
4. Babaeer LY, Wraith D. A systematic review of the effect of habitual breakfast for adolescents aged 11-19 years on academic performance. Journal of Adolescent and Family Health. 2018;9(1):7.
5. Goon S, Islam MS. Breakfast skipping and obesity risk among urban adults in Bangladesh. Int J Public Health Res. 2014;3(1):15–22.
6. Sandercock GRH, Voss C, Dye L: Associations between habitual school-day breakfast consumption, body mass index, physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness in English schoolchildren. Eur J ClinNutr 2010, 64:1086–1092.
7. Hoyland A, Dye L, Lawton CL: A systematic review of the effect of breakfast on the cognitive performance of children and adolescents. Nutr Res Rev 2009, 22:220–243.
8. Moore L, Moore GF, Tapper K, Lynch R, Desousa C, Hale J, Roberts C, Murphy S: Free breakfasts in schools: design and conduct of a cluster randomised controlled trial of the Primary School Free Breakfast Initiative in Wales. BMC Publ Health 2007, 7(258):1–12.
9. Mohiuddin AK. Skipping Breakfast Everyday Keeps Well-being Away. Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Research 1.2018; 1 (1): 018-030
10. Momina Effect of breakfast on academic performance of medical students. Rawal Medical Journal.2019;44(3): 618-621.
11. Rehman, R., Zafar, A., Mohib, A., Hussain, M., Ali, R.. Self-reported academic performance in relation to health behaviours among Bahria University students. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 2018;68(2): 195-199.
12. El-Chami M, Sacre Y, Matta J The Prevalence of Breakfast Skipping and its Association with Lifestyle Factors and Weight in 11-15 years Adolescents from Selected Lebanese Regions. Occup Med Health Aff 2017; 5: 260.
13. Dr. Prannoy Paul, Dr. Arun N Bhatt, “The prevalence of breakfast skipping among medical students and its neuro-glycopeniceffects”, ijmsir 2020;5(1):149-156.
14. Rukhshankhurshid, mairamahmood, Fatima chaudhry et al Factors associated with skipping breakfast among day scholarsand boarding adolescent and their effects on their academic performance. P j m h s. 2018;12(4): 1706-1709.
15. World Health Organization. WHO: Global Database on Body Mass Index n.d.Available from: bmi/index.jsp ?introPage=intro_3.html.
16. Sun et al.: Factors associated with skipping breakfast among Inner Mongolia Medical students in China. BMC Public Health.2013; 13:42.
17. Youssef M, Mohsen M, Abou El-Soud N and Kazem Y. Energy intake, diet composition among low social class overweight and obese Egyptian adolescents. J Am Sci 2010;6(9):160-168.
18. Garg M, Rajesh V and Kumar P. Effect of breakfast skipping on nutritional status and school Performance of 10-16 years old children of Udupi district. Health and Population Journal 2014; 37(3):98-117.
19. Liyanage G, Siriwardana HD, Wettasinghe CA, Mkhn K and Tki N. Breakfast Habits and its Relationship to Body Mass Index, Cognitive Function among Final Year Medical Students. J Gen Pract 2017; 5(3):1-4.
20. Samah Mahmoud Sofar "Relations between Skipping Breakfast, Academic Performance and Body Mass Index among Undergraduate University Nursing Students." .IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science (IOSR-JNHS).2019; 8(04):32-42.
21. Javaid A, Munir I. Breakfast Skipping and its Effects on Emotional and Academic Behaviour of a Group of Saudi Medical Students.2018; J Nutr Food Sci 8: 735.
22. Á. gikas, et al. Breakfast skipping and its association with other unhealthy food habits among greek high school adolescents. Annals of Gastroenterology 2003, 16(4):321-327.
How to Cite
Abro S, Saleem Q, Lashari J, Khalid G, Khan M, Malik F. Breakfast practices and factors associated with skipping of breakfast in medical students. JRMC [Internet]. 30Mar.2021 [cited 16Apr.2021];25(1):37-1. Available from: