Compliance on the Use of Different Types of Face Mask by Healthcare Workers and General Public in Tertiary Care Hospital of RMU during COVID-19 Pandemic

  • Saba Sarfraz RMU
  • Muhammad Raheel Raza
  • Khizar Aziz
  • Muhammad Umar
  • Khola Noreen
  • Malik Shehryar
Keywords: COVID-19, Face mask, Health care workers (HCW), Personal protective equipment (PPE).


Objective: To determine the compliance on the use of different types of facemask among HCWs, patients and the general public in different hospital settings of tertiary care hospital of RMU during COVID-19 pandemic

Material and Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study was done among 397 study subjects of either gender consisting of HCWs, patients, and the general public visiting the tertiary care hospital from 6th April-6th June 2020. Subjects were enrolled through convenience non-probability sampling. Data was gathered by a self-structured proforma. The study consisted of questioning the frequency of washing hands, using hand sanitizers, practicing physical distancing, using eye protection goggles or face shields, the practice of sterilizing or changing of shoes and clothes after coming back to home, frequent use of disposable gloves, use of caps or head covers and water-repellant aprons and gowns. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 25.0.

Results: A total of 397 study subjects including 206 (52%) males and 190 (48%) females were enrolled in the study. 118 (29.7%) had an underlying disease, 93 (78.8%) of them showed regular use of masks. The mean age of participants was 34.7 ± 12.2 years. 90.4% of study subjects had good compliance with using face masks in hospital settings, 25.9% study subjects used respirator type of masks while the use of homemade cloth was 4.8%. A total of 57.8% of study subjects had use of single masks, 22.5% used double masks, and 10.4% people used triple masks remaining 9.3% uses no masks at all. Among 189 HCWs 54% were using respirator type of masks and 46% were using surgical masks. The general public preferred to use locally made surgical masks or homemade cloth because they are cheap and easily available.

Conclusion: The selection and use of PPE especially facemasks vary among HCWs and non HCWs. Even among HCWs usage varies according to the type of healthcare workers and the working environment. Overall compliance with the use of face masks and other PPE was considerably low among non HCWs. Our study has provided preliminary data about the usage of masks among HCWs and non HCWs. Longitudinal studies must be conducted to collect better evidence about the use of the face mask as PPE and its associated factors.


1. Ippolito M,Vitale F,Accurso G,Lozzo P, etal.2020.Medical masks and Respirators for the protection of health care workersfrom SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses.Pulmonology journal.PULMOE-1468
2. Tian S, Hu N, L Jou, Chen K, Kang X, Xiang Z, etal.2020.Charecteristics of COVID-19 infection in Beijing. Journal of infection 80(4) 401-406
3. who website
4. Greenhalgh T, B Schmid M, Czypionka T, Bassler D, Gruer L.Face masks for the public during the covid-19 crisis.BMJ 2020;369:m1435 doi: 10.1136/bmj.m1435 (Published 9April2020)
5. howard j, huang a, li z, tufekci z, zdimal v, westhuizenh,etal 2020. Face masks against COVID-19: An Evidence Review. Preprints.
6. WHO interim guidance 05-06-2020, Advice on the use of masks in the context of covid-19
7. J Duguid, The size and the duration of air-carriage of respiratory droplets and droplet-nuclei. Epidemiol& infect. 44,471-479(1946)
8. L Morawska, etal, Size distribution and sites of origin of droplets expelled from the human respiratory tract during expiratory activities. J.Aerosol Sci. 40 256-268 (2009).
9. Advice on the use of masks in the context of COVID-19.Interim guidance 5 June 2020 WHO
10. Infection prevention and control of epidemic- and pandemic-prone acute respiratory infections in health care WHO Guidelines
11. Chughtai A, Seale H, Chi Dung T, Maher L, Thi Nga P. etal. Current practices and barriers to the use of facemasks and respirators among hospital-based health care workers in Vietnam. American journal of infection control 43 72-77 (2015).
12. What is the evidence on wearing masks to stop COVID-19? World economic forum.
13. Gammon J, Morgan-Samuel H, Gould D. A review of the evidence for suboptimal compliance of healthcare practitioners to standard/universal infection control precautions. J Clin Nurs 2008; 17:157-67.
14. S Asadi, et al., Aerosol emission and superemission during human speech increase with voice loudness. Sci. reports 9, 1–10 (2019)
15. L Bourouiba, Turbulent Gas Clouds and Respiratory Pathogen Emissions: Potential Implications for Reducing Transmission of COVID-19. JAMA (2020).
16. A Davies, et al., Testing the Efficacy of Homemade Masks: Would They Protect in an Influenza Pandemic? Disaster Medicine Public Heal. Prep. 7, 413–418 (2013).
17. S Rengasamy, B Eimer, RE Shaffer, Simple Respiratory ProtectionEvaluation of the Filtration Performance of Cloth Masks and Common Fabric Materials Against 201000 nm Size Particles. The Annals Occup. Hyg. 54, 789–798 (2010).
18. Mvd Sande, P Teunis, R Sabel, Professional and Home-Made Face Masks Reduce Exposure to Respiratory Infections among the General Population. PLOS ONE 3, e2618 (2008)
How to Cite
Sarfraz S, Raza M, Aziz K, Umar M, Noreen K, Shehryar M. Compliance on the Use of Different Types of Face Mask by Healthcare Workers and General Public in Tertiary Care Hospital of RMU during COVID-19 Pandemic. JRMC [Internet]. 16Aug.2020 [cited 27Sep.2020];24(Supp-1):71-6. Available from: