Antidiabetic Effects of Aloe Vera Whole Leaf Extract and Sitagliptin in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

  • Sobia Javaid RIPHAH Islamic International Medical College Rawalpindi
  • Akbar Waheed
Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Aloe Vera, Sitagliptin, Hypoglycemic Agents, Streptozotocin


Introduction: Aloe Vera, a perennial herb, is being used since ancient times for the cure of various diseases and is recently being used in curing diabetes due to the synergistic activity of its over 75 biologically active ingredients. The objective of the study was to compare the antidiabetic effects of Aloe Vera whole leaf extract with standard antidiabetic drug Sitagliptin on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Material and Methods: The present study was RCT, conducted at the Department of Pharmacology, Islamic International Medical College, Rawalpindi in collaboration with the National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan, from September 2019 to August 2020. A total of 40, young Sprague Dawley rats weighing between 220-250 grams were taken and randomly divided into Group A (Normal Control) and group B. After induction of Type-2 Diabetes, group B was further subdivided into 3 groups with 10 rats each: Group B1 (Diabetic Control), Group B2 (Aloe Vera whole Leaf Extract treated), GROUP B3 (Sitagliptin treated). Terminal Sampling was done to measure FBS and HbA1c on Day 60. Statistical Analysis was done by applying SPSS version 25. A one-way ANOVA test was used for assessing any difference in the mean values. Post-hoc Turkey analysis was conducted to compare any inter-group mean differences. P-value of <0.05 was considered significant.

Results: On completion of the study, at Day 60, mean FBS values for Rats in Group A were 82.40 mg/dl, for Group B1 498.40 mg/dl, for Group B2 89.30 mg/dl, and Group B3 93.00 mg/dl respectively. Mean HbA1c results for rats after terminal sampling in Group A were 3.71%, Group B1 11.84%, Group B2 4.02%, B3 3.73%. Rats in each of Group B2 (Aloe Vera whole leaf treated) and Group B3 (Sitagliptin treated) had a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar and HbA1c levels in comparison to Group B1 (diabetic control), with no statistically significant intergroup differences in results of Group A, Group B2 and Group B3.

Conclusion: Aloe Vera whole leaf extract significantly decreased fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels with almost similar efficacy to Sitagliptin in diabetic rats.


1. DeFronzo RA, Ferrannini E, Groop L, Henry RR, Herman WH, Holst JJ, Hu FB, Kahn CR, Raz I, Shulman GI, Simonson DC. Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nature reviews Disease primers. 2015 Jul 23;1(1):1-22.
2. Tanabe M, Motonaga R, Terawaki Y, Nomiyama T, Yanase T. Prescription of oral hypoglycemic agents for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a retrospective cohort study using a Japanese hospital database. Journal of Diabetes Investigation. 2017 Mar;8(2):227-34.
3. Sneha P, Doss CG. Gliptins in managing diabetes-Reviewing computational strategy. Life Sciences. 2016 Dec 1;166:108-20.
4. Lee M, Rhee MK. Sitagliptin for Type 2 diabetes: a 2015 update. Expert review of cardiovascular therapy. 2015 Jun 3;13(6):597-610
5. Mohan Dallumal R, Chua SS, Wu DB, Vethakkan SR. Sitagliptin: is it effective in routine clinical practice?. International journal of endocrinology. 2015 May 18;2015.
6. Scott LJ. Sitagliptin: a review in type 2 diabetes. Drugs. 2017 Feb 1;77(2):209-24 .
7. Sakura H, Hashimoto N, Sasamoto K, Ohashi H, Hasumi S, Ujihara N, et al. Effect of sitagliptin on blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who are treatment naive or poorly responsive to existing antidiabetic drugs: the JAMP study. BMC endocrine disorders. 2016 Dec 1;16(1):70.
8. Kothny W, Lukashevich V, Foley JE, Rendell MS, Schweizer A. Comparison of vildagliptin and sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes and severe renal impairment: a randomised clinical trial. Diabetologia. 2015 Sep 1;58(9):2020-6.
9. Bae EJ. DPP-4 inhibitors in diabetic complications: role of DPP-4 beyond glucose control. Archives of pharmacal research. 2016 Aug 1;39(8):1114-28.
10. Purohit P, Mishra B. Systematic review on interaction studies of synthetic antidiabetic drugs and herbal therapies. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2017 Jun 1;16(2):86-94. DOI: 10.18579/jpcrkc/2017/16/2/116431
11. Gupta BM, Ahmed KM, Dhawan SM, Gupta R. Yoga Research a Scientometric Assessment of Global Publications Output during 2007-16. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2018;10(3). DOI:10.5530/pj.2018.3.65
12. Arora MK, Sarup Y, Tomar R, Singh M, Kumar P. Amelioration of Diabetes-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy by Aloe vera: Implication of Oxidative Stress and Hyperlipidemia. J Diet Suppl2019;16(2):227–44.
13. Kumar R, Singh AK, Gupta A, Bishayee A, Pandey AK. Therapeutic potential of Aloe vera—A miracle gift of nature. Phytomedicine. 2019 Jul 1;60:152996.
14. John J. Evaluation of hypoglycemic effect of Aloe vera on allaxon induced diabetic rats. International Journal of Information Research and Review. 2017 Jan 22;4(3):3865-8.
15. Pothuraju R, Sharma RK, Onteru SK, Singh S, Hussain SA. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Aloe vera extract preparations: A review. Phytotherapy research. 2016 Feb;30(2):200-7.
16. Gul M, Moazzam S, Adil I. Effect of Aloevera Whole Leaf Extract in Combination with Rosiglitazone on Oxidative Stress and Lipid Profile Levels in Type-2 Diabetic Rats. Journal of Islamabad Medical & Dental College. 2018 Nov 18;7(3):159-64.
17. Furman BL. Streptozotocin‐induced diabetic models in mice and rats. Current protocols in pharmacology. 2015 Sep;70(1):5-47.
18. Ferreira L, Teixeira-de-Lemos E, Pinto F, Parada B, Mega C, Vala H, et al. Effects of sitagliptin treatment on dysmetabolism, inflammation, and oxidative stress in an animal model of type 2 diabetes (ZDF rat). Mediators of inflammation. 2010;2010.
19. Pattali G, Yenge G, Cheluvadi R, Nidoni U, Hiregoudar S. Mathematical modeling for drying of whole leaf Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller).
20. Althwab SA. Anti-diabetic Activity of Aloe vera Supplement REVIEW. 2018;11(1):75–81.
21. Christijanti W, Juniarto AZ, Suromo LB. Hypoglycemic effects of Aloe vera peel extract on type 2 diabetic rats. InJournal of Physics: Conference Series 2019 Oct (Vol. 1321, No. 3, p. 032032). IOP Publishing.
22. Shakib Z, Shahraki N, Razavi BM, Hosseinzadeh H. Aloe vera as an herbal medicine in the treatment of metabolic syndrome: A review. Phytotherapy Research. 2019 Oct;33(10):2649-60.
23. Mohamed EA. Antidiabetic, antihypercholestermic and antioxidative effect of Aloe vera gel extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Aust J Basic Appl Sci. 2011;5(11):1321-7.
24. Manjunath K, Subash KR, Tadvi NA, Manikanta M, Rao U. Effect of Aloe vera leaf extract on blood glucose levels in alloxan induced diabetic rats. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2016;6(5):471. DOI:10.5455/nippp.2016.6.0718613072016
How to Cite
Javaid S, Waheed A. Antidiabetic Effects of Aloe Vera Whole Leaf Extract and Sitagliptin in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats. JRMC [Internet]. 30Dec.2020 [cited 19Jan.2021];24(4):384-9. Available from: