Customizing Case-Based Learning (CBL) Sessions with Limited Resources and Analysis of their Perceived Effectiveness by the Conducting Facilitators

  • Sadia Ahsin
  • Hira Ashraf
  • Gule Naghma Saeed
Keywords: Medical Education, Problem-Based Learning, Case-Based Learning.


Introduction: Intense resource involvement invites educationists to think of innovative methods for the continuation of CBL sessions while remaining within the restricted budget. The current study was planned to develop CBL sessions for second-year MBBS class during the endocrine module utilizing minimal resources and to determine the effectiveness of customized CBL methods by qualitatively analyzing experiences of the involved faculty.

Methods: This study was conducted at Foundation University, Islamabad in six months after ethical approval. In the first phase, resource limitations like time slots, well-equipped rooms, and trained faculty were identified. CBL method was adapted and modified from the Maastricht PBL ‘Seven Jump’ process. 7 CBL sessions were conducted as per the devised method. Semi-structured interviews of 9 CBL facilitators were recorded, transcribed, validated, and analyzed in the second phase.

Results: All facilitators believed that these sessions provided a productive, focused, intense yet enjoyable learning experience. 4 considered that large groups hindered adequate student participation, while 2 out of 9 themselves felt nervous due to large class sizes. Recap by the senior faculty member was suggested.

Conclusion: Modified CBL sessions were perceived by facilitators as an enjoyable and intense learning opportunity for both students and themselves, despite being conducted in a large group utilizing minimal resources.


1. Srinivasan M, Wilkes M, Stevenson F, Nguyen T, Slavin S. Comparing problem-based learning with case-based learning: effects of a major curricular shift at two institutions. Academic Medicine. 2007;82(1):74-82. DOI:10.1097/01.ACM.0000249963.93776.aa
2. Singh P. CBL in Medical Education Effective Learning Methodology than PBL. Int J Intg Med Sci. 2015;2(8):145-50. DOI: 10.16965/ijims.2015.121
3. Thistlethwaite JE, Davies D, Ekeocha S, Kidd JM, MacDougall C, Matthews P, et al. The effectiveness of case-based learning in health professional education. A BEME systematic review: BEME Guide No. 23. Med Teach. 2012;34(6):e421-e44. DOI: 10.3109/0142159X.2012.680939
4. Barrows HS. A taxomony of problem-based learning concepts. Med Educ. 1986;20(6):481-6.
5. Amoako-Sakyi D, Amonoo-Kuofi H. Problem-based learning in resource-poor settings: lessons from a medical school in Ghana. BMC Med Educ. 2015;15(1):221.doi: 10.1186/s12909-015-0501-4
6. Horne M, Woodhead K, Morgan L, Smithies L, Megson D, Lyte G. Using enquiry in learning: From vision to reality in higher education. Nurse Educ Today. 2007;27(2):103-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.nedt.2006.03.004
7. Walldén S, Mäkinen E. Educational Data Mining and Problem-Based Learning. Informatics in Education. 2014;13(1):141-56.
8. Glaser B, Strauss A. The discovery of grounded theory. Hawthorne. NY Aldine De Gruyter. 1967.
9. Hay PJ, Katsikitis M. The ‘expert’ in problem‐based and case‐based learning: necessary or not? Med Educ. 2001;35(1):22-6.
10. Pearson TA, Barker WH, Fisher SG, Trafton SH. Integration of the case-based series in population-oriented prevention into a problem-based medical curriculum. Am J Prev Med. 2003;24(4):102-7.doi: 10.1016/S0749-3797(03)00030-8
11. Jamkar A, Burdick W, Morahan P, Yemul V, Singh G. Proposed model of case based learning for training undergraduate medical student in surgery. Indian J Surg. 2007;69(5):176-83. DOI: 10.1007/s12262-007-0016-2
12. Williams B. Case based learning—a review of the literature: is there scope for this educational paradigm in prehospital education? Emerg Med J. 2005;22(8):577-81. DOI: 10.1136/emj.2004.022707
13. Singh PR, Bhatt R. Introduction of case based learning for teaching anatomy in a conventional medical school. J Anat Soc India. 2011;60(2):232-5. DOI: 10.1016/S0003-2778(11)80034-1
How to Cite
Ahsin S, Ashraf H, Saeed GN. Customizing Case-Based Learning (CBL) Sessions with Limited Resources and Analysis of their Perceived Effectiveness by the Conducting Facilitators. JRMC [Internet]. 26Jun.2020 [cited 25Oct.2021];24(2):117-22. Available from: