Non-Compliance with COVID-19 Screening in Pakistan
A Cross-Sectional Survey
Objectives: To quantify the non-complaint portion of the general public – not wanting to be screened for COVID-19 and find the reason for this non-compliance, in the general public of Rawalpindi Pakistan.
Study Design: Cross-sectional survey.
Place and Duration of Study: General public of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. From June 19, 2020, to June 21, 2020.
Methodology: A questionnaire was constructed based on a local study, it was injected to the accessible online population through Google Forms. Surveyors collected data from the illiterate population on printed proforma. A sample of 1108 was collected. IBM® SPSS® was used for data analysis. For categorical data, frequencies and percentages were calculated. A Chi-square test was applied for statistical significance.
Results: 45.3% of participants were females, 54.7% were males. 37.9% of participants were married and 62.1% were unmarried. 3.8% were illiterate, 40.4% were matriculated and 47.1% had education higher than intermediate. 38.3% was non-compliant population – didn’t want to get screened for COVID-19. 30.7% were non-compliant because of ‘fear of isolation/ quarantine with other COVID-19 patients, leading to worsening of disease’ followed by 26.9% who ‘don’t trust the reliability of the test’. Gender and Education level variables were statistically significant in determining non-compliance. Marital status was found non-significant.
Conclusion: A significant portion of the population i.e. 38.3% showed non-compliance with COVID-19 screening, which was statistically associated with gender and education level.
2. Ma J. China's first confirmed Covid-19 case traced back to November 17 [Internet]. South China Morning Post. 2020 [cited 2020Jun2]. Available from: https://www.scmp.com/news/china/society/article/3074991/coronavirus-chinas-first-confirmed-covid-19-case-traced-back
3. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) - events as they happen [Internet]. World Health Organization. World Health Organization; [cited 2020Jun5]. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/events-as-they-happen
4. ArcGIS Dashboards. [cited 2020Jun2]. Available from: https://gisanddata.maps.arcgis.com/apps/opsdashboard/index.html#/bda7594740fd40299423467b48e9ecf6
5. COVID-19 Health Advisory Platform by Ministry of National Health Services Regulations and Coordination [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jun 2]. Available from: http://covid.gov.pk/stats/pakistan
6. CDC. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) [Internet]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2020 [cited 2020 Jun 2]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html
7. Speth MM, Singer-Cornelius T, Obere M, Gengler I, Brockmeier SJ, Sedaghat AR. Olfactory Dysfunction and Sinonasal Symptomatology in COVID-19: Prevalence, Severity, Timing, and Associated Characteristics: Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery [Internet]. 2020 May 19 [cited 2020 Jun 2]; Available from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0194599820929185
8. Cascella M, Rajnik M, Cuomo A, Dulebohn SC, Di Napoli R. Features, Evaluation and Treatment Coronavirus (COVID-19). In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 [cited 2020 Jun 2]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554776/
9. Bikdeli B, Madhavan MV, Jimenez D, Chuich T, Dreyfus I, Driggin E, et al. COVID-19 and Thrombotic or Thromboembolic Disease: Implications for Prevention, Antithrombotic Therapy, and Follow-up. J Am Coll Cardiol [Internet]. 2020 Apr 17 [cited 2020 Jun 2]; Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7164881/
10. CDC. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) - Transmission [Internet]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2020 [cited 2020 Jun 2]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/how-covid-spreads.html
11. CDC. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) [Internet]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2020 [cited 2020 Jun 2]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/planning-scenarios.html
12. Q&A on coronaviruses (COVID-19) [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jun 5]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-coronaviruses
13. Anderson RM, Heesterbeek H, Klinkenberg D, Hollingsworth TD. How will country-based mitigation measures influence the course of the COVID-19 epidemic? Lancet. 2020;395(10228):931–4.
14. Gulzar F. Pakistan government eased lockdown despite study suggesting 700,000 coronavirus cases in Lahore alone, “no area virus-free”, netizens ask why was the report “disregarded” [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2020 Jun 5]. Available from: https://gulfnews.com/world/asia/pakistan/pakistan-government-eased-lockdown-despite-study-suggesting-700000-coronavirus-cases-in-lahore-alone-no-area-virus-free-netizens-ask-why-was-the-report-disregarded-1.1591111143637
15. Oran DP, Topol EJ. Getting a handle on asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection [Internet]. Scripps Research. 2020 [cited 2020Jun5]. Available from: https://www.scripps.edu/science-and-medicine/translational-institute/about/news/sarc-cov-2-infection/index.html
16. Grenfell R, Drew T. Here’s Why It’s Taking So Long to Develop a Vaccine For The New Coronavirus [Internet]. ScienceAlert. 2020 [cited 2020 Jun 5]. Available from: https://www.sciencealert.com/who-says-a-coronavirus-vaccine-is-18-months-away
17. Aubrey A, Wroth C, Huang P. Which States Are Doing Enough Testing? This Benchmark Helps Settle The Debate [Internet]. NPR.org. 2020 [cited 2020 Jun 5]. Available from: https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2020/04/22/840526338/is-the-u-s-testing-enough-for-covid-19-as-debate-rages-on-heres-how-to-know
18. Salahuddin N. The COVID-19 Pandemic. J Pak Med Assoc. 2020;(0):1.
19. Thompson S, Eilperin J, Dennis B. As coronavirus testing expands, a new problem arises: Not enough people to test [Internet]. Washington Post. 2020 [cited 2020 Jun 5]. Available from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/as-coronavirus-testing-expands-a-new-problem-arises-not-enough-people-to-test/2020/05/17/3f3297de-8bcd-11ea-8ac1-bfb250876b7a_story.html
20. Levitt S, Romer P, Severts J. How to get millions of people to take coronavirus tests and stay home if they’re positive [Internet]. USA TODAY. 2020 [cited 2020 Jun 5]. Available from: https://www.usatoday.com/story/opinion/2020/04/30/coronavirus-tests-quarantines-incentives-can-make-it-work-column/3048508001/
21. Balkhi F, Nasir A, Zehra A, Riaz R, F B, A N, et al. Psychological and Behavioral Response to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic. Cureus Journal of Medical Science [Internet]. 2020 May 2 [cited 2020 Jun 23];12(5). Available from: https://www.cureus.com/articles/31114-psychological-and-behavioral-response-to-the-coronavirus-covid-19-pandemic
22. Watson J, Whiting PF, Brush JE. Interpreting a covid-19 test result. BMJ [Internet]. 2020 May 12 [cited 2020 Jun 23];369. Available from: https://www.bmj.com/content/369/bmj.m1808
23. Mirza TM, Ali R, Khan HM. The Knowledge and Perception of Covid-19 and Its Preventive Measures, In Public of Pakistan. Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal. 2020 Apr 30;70(2):338–45.
24. Geldsetzer P. Knowledge and Perceptions of COVID-19 Among the General Public in the United States and the United Kingdom: A Cross-sectional Online Survey. Ann Intern Med [Internet]. 2020 Mar 20 [cited 2020 Jun 23]; Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7086377/
25. Mukhtar S. Pakistanis’ Mental Health during the COVID-19. Asian J Psychiatr [Internet]. 2020 Apr 23 [cited 2020 Jun 23]; Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7179483/
26. Mental health and COVID-19 [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jun 23]. Available from: https://www.who.int/teams/mental-health-and-substance-use/covid-19
27. Khan SCSH. Covid-19, An Infodemic Associated With Pandemic: The Socioeconomic Implications and Pressure On Healthcare. Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal. 2020 Apr 30;70(2):278–80.
Copyright (c) 2020 Furqan Ali Taj, Muhammad Raheel Raza, Saima Naz, Muhammad Umar, Aqsa Hameed
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
All research articles published in the Journal of Rawalpindi Medical College (JRMC) are fully open access: immediately freely available to read, download, and share. Copyrights of all articles published in JRMC are retained by the authors. First publication rights are granted to JRMC. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work.
All articles are published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-SA 4.0) license.