Assessment of Clinical Spectrum of Renal Diseases in children – A Descriptive Study at Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi
Introduction: Childhood kidney diseases are a frequent presentation. Most of the affected pediatric populations are from under-developed and developing countries. Noting the epidemiology of childhood renal diseases is very important as it helps in health planning, allows for adequate resource allocation, and enables adequate renal services provision. This study aimed to determine the etiological spectrum of renal disease in pediatric patients.
Material and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi over a period of 6 months. Ethical clearance was taken from the institutional review board and written informed consent was administered before enrollment of subject per study criteria. A total of 100 children of both genders, aged up to 12 years with the diagnosis of any renal disease condition were included in the study. Patients having other comorbidities like chronic liver disease and heart diseases were excluded. The study information as age, sex, detailed history, and physical examination, and details of laboratory investigations. Statistical analysis was conducted in SPSS version 20.0.
Results: Mean age of patients was 2.1 years. Most patients had a fever, edema, burning micturition, and high blood pressure. In two-thirds of the children RFTs were deranged and 19.0% had positive urinary culture reports. The common kidney diseases were UTI (42.0%), nephrotic syndrome (29.0%), acute kidney injury/ disease (19.0%), and chronic kidney disease (6.0%).
Conclusion: UTIs and nephrotic syndrome along with acute kidney injury were the main kidney conditions. Females were more likely to have UTIs whereas nephrotic syndrome was common in male children.
2. Bhatta NK, Shrestha P, Budhathoki S, Kalakheti BK, Poudel P, Sinha A, et al. Profile of renal diseases in Nepalese children. Kathmandu University medical journal (KUMJ). 2008 Apr 1;6(2):191-4.
3. Bhimma R, Kalo U. Childhood kidney disease in developing countries: Is it a forgotten disease? S Afr J Child Health 2016:10:103-4. (http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/sajch.2016.v10i2.1144)
4. Ibeneme CA, Okoronkwo N, Ezuruike E, Nwala G, Oguonu T. Pattern of childhood renal disorder in Umuahia, South East Nigeria. Int J Med Health Dev. 2015;20;1-9. (DOI: 10.4314/jcm.v20i1.4)
5. Mehta RL, Cerdá J, Burdmann EA, Tonelli M, García-García G, Jha V, et al. International Society of Nephrology's 0by25 initiative for acute kidney injury (zero preventable deaths by 2025): a human rights case for nephrology. Lancet. 2015; 385:2616–43. (DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60126-X)
6. Angilage EA, Adosina TS. Christian adosina. The pattern and outcome of childhood renal disease at university of Abiya Teaching Hospital, Abiya, Nigeria. N PMJ. 2019; 26: 53-60 (DOI: 10.4103/npmj.npmj_174_18)
7. Ashraf M. Spectrum of renal and urinary tract diseases in Kashmiri Children. J Clin Diagn Res. 2016; 1: 1-5 (https://dx.doi.org/10.7860%2FJCDR%2F2016%2F20222.7999)
8. Khan AR, Mooram C. Pattern of renal diseases in children. J Surg Pak. 2001: 6: 9-12
9. Sreedharan R, Avner ED. Nelson text book of pediatrics. 20th edition, vol 3; pp2539-2540.
10. Priaya P, Avner ED. Nelson text book of pediatrics. 20th edition, vol 3; pp2521-2523.
11. Yim T, Kim SU, Park S, et al. Patterns in renal diseases diagnosed by kidney biopsy: A single-center experience. Kidney Res Clin Pract. 2020;39(1):60–69. (https://dx.doi.org/10.23876%2Fj.krcp.19.077)
12. M Salarzaei, S Saravani, M Heydari, H Aali, A Malekzadegan, D Soofi et al. Prevalence of urinary tract infection in children with nephrotic syndrome. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2017; 8(7): 3146-50. (DOI: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.8(7)
13. Lo Denise Swei, Shieh Huei Hsin, Ragazzi Selma Lopes Betta, Koch Vera Hermina Kalika, Martinez Marina Baquerizo, Gilio Alfredo Elias. Community-acquired urinary tract infection: age and gender-dependent etiology. J Bras Nefrol. 2013; 35(2): 93-98 (http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0101-2800.20130016)
14. Magliano E, Grazioli V, Deflorio L, Leuci AI, Mattina R, Romano R. Gender and Age-Dependent Etiology of Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections. The World Sci J. 2012; Volume 2012 |Article ID 349597 | 6 pages | https://doi.org/10.1100/2012/349597
15. Yadav SP, Shah GS, Mishra OP, Baral N. Pattern of Renal Diseases in Children: A Developing Country Experience. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2016;27(2):371-376 DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.178565
16. Etuk IS, Anah MU, Ochighs SO, Eyong M. Pattern of pediatric renal disease in inpatients in Calabar, Nigeria. Trop Doct. 2006;36:256. (DOI: 10.1258/004947506778604968)
17. Malla T, Malla KK, Thapalial A, Sharma MS. An overview of renal disease in children in Pokhara. J Nepal Pediatric Soc. 2007;27:75-8. doi:10.3126/jnps.v27i2.1414
18. Obiagwu PN, Lugga AS, Abubakar AA. Pattern of renal diseases in children attending pediatric nephrology clinic of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano. Niger J Clin Pract. 2019;22:920-5. (DOI: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_538_18)
19. Vranic SM, Zatric N, Rebic V, Aljicevic M, Abdulzaimovic A. The Most Frequent Isolates from Outpatients with Urinary Tract Infection. Mater Sociomed. 2017; 29(1): 17-20 DOI: 10.5455/msm.2017.29.17-20
20. Neuzillet Y, Naber KG, Schito G, Gualco L, Botto H. French results of the ARESC study: clinical aspects and epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in female patients with cystitis. Implications for empiric therapy. Med Mal Infect. 2012; 42(2): 66-75. DOI: 10.1016/j.medmal.2011.07.005
21. Abduzaimovic A, Aljicevic M, Rebic V, Vranic S, Abduzaimovic K, Sestic S. Antibiotic Resistance in Urinary Isolates of Escherichia coli. Mater Sociomed. 2016; 28(6): 416-9 doi: 10.5455/msm.2016.28.416-419
22. Safaei A, Maleknejad S. Spectrum of childhood nephrotic syndrome in Iran: A single center study. Indian J Nephrol. 2009;19(3):87–90. DOI: 10.4103/0971-4065.57103
Copyright (c) 2021 Maria Shamsher, Sadaf Ijaz, Mobeen Tabassum, Rai Muhammad Asghar
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
All research articles published in the Journal of Rawalpindi Medical College (JRMC) are fully open access: immediately freely available to read, download, and share. Copyrights of all articles published in JRMC are retained by the authors. First publication rights are granted to JRMC. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work.
All articles are published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-SA 4.0) license.