Future Time Perspective and Frustration Intolerance in Medical students

  • Hafiz Tanveer Tariq
  • Muhammad Umar Afzal
  • Abdur Rehman Malik
  • Adam Umair Ashraf Butt
  • Muhammad Sarfraz Khan
Keywords: Medical students, COVID-19, Frustration, Surveys and Questionnaires, Future time perspective scale, future discomfort scale.


Background: The future perception of students is affected by a series of events happening throughout their course of studies. The objective of this study is to measure the Future time perspective (FTP) and Future intolerance (FI) among medical students during the COVID-19 lockdown.
Materials and Methods: It was a descriptive cross-sectional study done from January 15, 2020 to July 20, 2020 among MBBS students of Rawalpindi Medical University. The questionnaire consisted of 1) Socio-demographic details, 2) Future Time Perspective scale, and 3) Frustration Discomfort scale. An online survey was done using Google Forms. An ANOVA was run to check for differences in FTP and FI between the classes. Bivariate analysis for continuous variables was applied. The data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) v.23.0 (IBM, Armonk, US).
Results: Mean age of participants was 21.8 (SD=1.66) with majority females 331(58.4%). The mean FTP score and mean FI scores were 50.8(SD=19.43) and 91.46(SD=17.65) respectively. Final-year students had the highest mean score (Mean=57.94(SD=7.72)) for FI. On the other hand, mean scores for FDS were highest in first-year students (Mean=102.89 (SD=13.52)) while lowest in fourth-year students (Mean=81.73(SD=17.49)) with P=.005. There was a significant difference in the dimensions of Emotional Intolerance and achievement among females and males. Bivariate analysis showed a significant negative correlation was found between FTP and the dimension of discomfort intolerance (r = -0.158, p < 0.001), while a significant positive correlation was found between FTP and the dimension of achievement (r = 0.225, p < 0.001).
Conclusion: Our study concludes that final-year students have a much higher tolerance level for adversities. Furthermore, they also have a much more positive perspective and a clearer vision regarding their future.


1. Kooij D, Rudolph CW. Future Time Perspective: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Work Science Center View project Job design and action regulation in older workers View project. Artic J Appl Psychol. 2018;
2. Lewin K. Time perspective and morale. In: Civilian morale: Second yearbook of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. Houghton Mifflin Company; 2012. p. 48–70.
3. Andre L, Van Vianen AEM, Peetsma TTD, Oort FJ. Motivational power of future time perspective: Meta-analyses in education, work, and health. Vol. 13, PLoS ONE. Public Library of Science; 2018. p. e0190492.
4. Wilde J. The Relationship between Frustration Intolerance and Academic Achievement in College. Int J High Educ. 2012;1(2).
5. Wang N. Study on frustration tolerance and training method of college students. In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg; 2012. p. 663–8.
6. Elsayed M, Fattah A. Frustration Intolerance and Its Relationship to Personality Traits among Sample of Najran University Students " Predictive Study ". 2017;7(2):49–54.
7. Jibeen T. Frustration Intolerance Beliefs as Predictors of Emotional Problems in University Undergraduates. J Ration - Emotive Cogn - Behav Ther. 2013 Mar;31(1):16–26.
8. Harrington N. It’s too difficult! Frustration intolerance beliefs and procrastination. Pers Individ Dif. 2005 Oct;39(5):873–83.
9. Gulzar S, Yahya F, Nauman M, Mir Z, Mujahid SH. Frustration among University Students in Pakistan. International rEsearch Journal of Social Sciences. 2012;1(4):7-15.
10. Teahan JE. Future time perspective, optimism, and academic achievement. J Abnorm Soc Psychol. 1958 Nov;57(3):379–80.
11. HILPERT JC, HUSMAN J, STUMP GS, KIM W, CHUNG W-T, DUGGAN MA. Examining students’ future time perspective: Pathways to knowledge building1. Jpn Psychol Res. 2012 Sep;54(3):229–40.
12. Dhahri AA, Arain SY, Memon AM, Rao A, Khan MM,et al. The psychological impact of COVID-19 on medical education of final year students in Pakistan: A cross-sectional study. Annals of Medicine and Surgery. 2020 Dec 1;60:445-50.
13. Boni RAdS, Paiva CE, de Oliveira MA, Lucchetti G, Fregnani JHTG, et al. Burnout among medical students during the first years of undergraduate school: Prevalence and associated factors. PLOS ONE. 2018; 13(3): e0191746. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191746
14. Carstensen L, manuscript FL-U, University S, 1996 undefined. Future time perspective scale.
15. Harrington N. The Frustration Discomfort Scale: development and psychometric properties. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2005 Sep 1;12(5):374–87.
16. Harrington N. Frustration intolerance beliefs: Their relationship with depression, anxiety, and anger, in a clinical population. Cognit Ther Res. 2006 Dec 16;30(6):699–709.
17. DiGiuseppe R, DiGiuseppe R, Doyle K, Dryden W. A practitioner’s guide to rational-emotive behavior therapy. 2013.
18. 17. Götz K, Miksch A, Hermann K, Loh A, Kiolbassa K, Joos S, et al. Berufswunsch “Planungssicherer Arbeitsplatz” Ergebnisse einer Online-Befragung unter Medizinstudierenden. Dtsch Medizinische Wochenschrift. 2011;136(6):253–7.
19. Heinen I, Bullinger M, Kocalevent RD. Perceived stress in first year medical students - associations with personal resources and emotional distress. BMC Med Educ. 2017 Jan 6;17(1):1–14.
20. Singh S, Prakash J, Das R, Srivastava K. A cross-sectional assessment of stress, coping, and burnout in the final-year medical undergraduate students. Ind Psychiatry J. 2016;25(2):179.
21. Fares J, Al Tabosh H, Saadeddin Z, El Mouhayyar C, Aridi H. Stress, burnout and coping strategies in preclinical medical students. Vol. 8, North American Journal of Medical Sciences. North American Journal of Medical Sciences; 2016. p. 75–81.
How to Cite
Tariq H, Afzal M, Malik A, Butt A, Khan M. Future Time Perspective and Frustration Intolerance in Medical students. JRMC [Internet]. 15Jul.2021 [cited 5Aug.2021];25(1):17-3. Available from: https://journalrmc.com/index.php/JRMC/article/view/1739

Most read articles by the same author(s)