Background: To study the role of fathers’ expressed emotions in psychopathology and social-emotional competence in adolescents.
Methods: Through observational research design a study was conducted in the district Gujrat Pakistan from July 2020 to march 2021.As the inclusion criteria of the study was to include adolescents whose age range was 12 to 19 and the only fathers included whose children were adolescents. So the purposive sampling technique was used and five hundred adolescents were selected from different colleges and schools, five hundred fathers of same adolescents approached from the community and their working places. For this purpose Parental Expressed Emotions Scale 1 was used and to assess the psychopathology (Social anxiety) and social-emotional competence in adolescents, Social Anxiety Scale,2 and Social Emotional-Competence Scale 3 were used and data was analyzed by using SPSS-21.
Results: A total of 500 adolescents selected for study whose age range was from 12-19 years 4 and mean age of 16 years. In which 229 (46%) were boys and 271 (54%) were girls. Simple linear regression was used to see the effects of father expressed emotions in psychopathology and social-emotional competence in adolescents. Results showed significant difference in negative and positive expressed emotions of father. Father’ expressed emotions of critical comments caused 56%and hostility 64% predictor of social anxiety in adolescents. On the other hand father emotional -over involvement caused 11% warmth 37% and positive remarks 17% increase in social-emotional competence of adolescents.
Conclusion: Father expressed emotions found to be significant predictor of social anxiety and social-emotional competence in adolescents.
In the current study statistically significant predictive relationship has been found among fathers’ expressed emotions of critical comments, hostility, emotional-over involvement, positive remarks and warmth on adolescents’ social anxiety and social-emotional competence.
These kinds of studies can promote a deeper understanding of fathers that what are the expressed emotions, and how they associated with adolescents' mental health issues like social anxiety and as well as with social-emotional competencies.
The present study was based on the fathers expressed emotions with their normal adolescents which is very first study in Pakistan.
In current study not only explored the role of father expressed emotions but also provide prevalence of social anxiety among adolescents which is very rarely studied in Pakistan.
Although there would be not possible to find out gender, age and institution wise differences in single study although it will be helpful to provide grounds for future researchers to explore these aspects in their studies.
Akhtar S, Bano Z. DEVELOPMENT AND PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF PARENTAL EXPRESSED EMOTIONS SCALE. Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal. 2021 Jan 28;71(Suppl-1):S219-23.
La Greca AM, Lopez N. Social anxiety among adolescents: Linkages with peer relations and friendships. Journal of abnormal child psychology. 1998 Apr;26(2):83-94. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022684520514
Durlak JA, Dymnicki AB, Taylor RD, Weissberg RP, Schellinger KB, Dubois D, Lipsey M, Greenberg M, O’brien MU. Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL).
World Health Organization. Report of Regional TAG meeting to accelerate reduction in newborn and child mortality towards achieving SDG 2030 targets: 16-19 November 2021. World Health Organization. Regional Office for South-East Asia; 2022.
Dubowitz H, Black MM, Cox CE, Kerr MA, Litrownik AJ, Radhakrishna A, English DJ, Schneider MW, Runyan DK. Father involvement and children's functioning at age 6 years: A multisite study. Child Maltreatment. 2001 Nov;6(4):300-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559501006004003
Arnett JJ. Adolescent storm and stress, reconsidered. American psychologist. 1999 May;54(5):317 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.54.5.317.
Brown GW, Birley JL, Wing JK. Influence of family life on the course of schizophrenic disorders: A replication. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 1972 Sep;121(562):241-58. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.121.3.241
Hibbs ED, Hamburger SD, Lenane M, Rapoport JL, Kruesi MJ, Keysor CS, Goldstein MJ. Determinants of expressed emotion in families of disturbed and normal children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 1991 Jul;32(5):757-70 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1991.tb01900.x
Anderson DK, Lord C, Risi S, DiLavore PS, Shulman C, Thurm A, Pickles A. American Psychiatric Association.(2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Washington, DC: Author. The Linguistic and Cognitive Effects of Bilingualism on Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. 2017 Apr;21:175.
Brown AM, Whiteside SP. Relations among perceived parental rearing behaviors, attachment style, and worry in anxious children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2008 Jan 1;22(2):263-72 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2007.02.002.
Eisenberg N, Cumberland A, Spinrad TL, Fabes RA, Shepard SA, Reiser M, Murphy BC, Losoya SH, Guthrie IK. The relations of regulation and emotionality to children's externalizing and internalizing problem behavior. Child development. 2001 Aug;72(4):1112-34 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00337.
Lindsay G. Researching children’s perspectives: ethical issues. McGraw-Hill Education (UK); 1999 Dec 1,3-20 ISBN 9780335202799
Khoury JE, Kaur H, Gonzalez A. Parental Mental Health and Hostility Are Associated With Longitudinal Increases in Child Internalizing and Externalizing Problems During COVID-19. Front Psychol. 2021 Jul 29;12:706168. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.706168. PMID: 34393943; PMCID: PMC8357980.
Laghezza L, Delvecchio E, Salcuni S, Riso DD, Chessa D, Lis A, Tompson MC. Five-minute speech sample measure of expressed emotion among parents of typically developing Italian children: A pilot study. Perceptual and motor skills. 2011 Apr;112(2):382-92 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2466/07.10.21.28.PMS.112.2.382-392
The Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL) (2018). Six rules of thumb for determining sample size and statistical power. Retrieved from:
Paley B, Conger RD, Harold GT. Parents' affect, adolescent cognitive representations, and adolescent social development. Journal of Marriage and Family. 2000 Aug;62(3):761-76 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00761.x
Leff J, Vaughn C. Expressed emotion in families: Its significance for mental illness. Guilford press; 1984.
Amato PR, Gilbreth JG. Nonresident fathers and children's well-being: A meta-analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family. 1999 Aug 1:557-73 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/353560
Lam D, Giles A, Lavander A. Carers’ expressed emotion, appraisal of behavioural problems and stress in children attending schools for learning disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 2003 Sep;47(6):456-63 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2788.2003.00512.x
Bolton C, Barrowclough C, Calam R. Parental criticism and adolescent depression: does adolescent self-evaluation act as a mediator?. Behavioural and cognitive psychotherapy. 2009 Oct;37(5):553-70 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465809990221
Rapee RM. Family factors in the development and management of anxiety disorders. Clinical child and family psychology review. 2012 Mar;15(1):69-80 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-011-0106-3
Amato PR. Father-child relations, mother-child relations, and offspring psychological well-being in early adulthood. Journal of Marriage and the Family. 1994 Nov 1:1031-42 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/353611