Official publication of Rawalpindi Medical University
Covid-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy among medical students of Faisalabad

Supplementary Files


How to Cite

Din MU, Shahid U, Qudoos A, Ahmed R, Sohail M, Javed S. Covid-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy among medical students of Faisalabad. JRMC [Internet]. 2023 Jun. 24 [cited 2023 Sep. 29];27(2). Available from:


Objectives: The study was conducted to determine the Covid-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy among the medical students who are more susceptible to be infected being the frontline workers.

Methodology: This analytical cross sectional study was conducted in medical students of 1st to final year MBBS of various medical institutions of Faisalabad. Study duration was 3 months (August 2021 to October 2021). The sample size was 391 and divided in 2 age groups i.e. above and below 21 years and 245 (62.7%) comprised of females. The inclusion criteria were those students who gave consent and filled out the questionnaire and the exclusion criteria was who didn't concede. The data was analysed on SPSS 25. Confidence interval was set to be 95% with 5% margin of error.

Results: More than half of the participants i.e. 214 (54.7) have got Sinopharm vaccine. Vaccine hesitancy was found in 28 (7.2%) students and major reason was concern about vaccine safety. Significant relationship (p = < 0.05) was found in all factors related to ‘concerns regarding Covid-19 vaccines and trust of official information’; in all except one in factors related to ‘awareness and overall attitude regarding vaccine acceptance’ and in all except one in factors related to ‘perception of vulnerability to COVID-19 and attitude regarding usefulness of vaccine for community’.

Conclusion: Covid-19 vaccine hesitancy was found in one out of every 14 medical students. They were concerned about the efficacy of Covid-19 vaccines. Most of the participants also showed concerns regarding severe adverse effects of these vaccine and on vaccine trials also before making it available for general public. At the same time, participants showed trust on information about Covid-19 vaccine from government and public health experts. Although vaccine hesitancy was present in only 7.2% of participants, health education programmes should be arranged to improve awareness and trust on Covid-19 vaccine. Concerns of medical students should be addressed on priority as future health care providers.

Keywords: Covid-19, medical students, vaccine acceptance, hesitancy


Young Young BE, Ong SW, Ng LF, Anderson DE, Chia WN, Chia PY, Ang LW, Mak TM, Kalimuddin S, Chai LY, Pada S. Viral dynamics and immune correlates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2021 Nov 1;73(9):e2932-42.. 2020.

Wu HL, Huang J, Zhang CJ, He Z, Ming WK. Facemask shortage and the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak: Reflections on public health measures. EClinicalMedicine. 2020 Apr 1;21:100329.

Gaebler C, Nussenzweig MC. All eyes are on a hurdle race for a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Nature Publishing Group; 2020.

Imran M, Khan S, Khan S, Uddin A, Khan MS, Ambade P. COVID‐19 situation in Pakistan: A broad overview. Respirol. (Carlton, Vic.). 2021 Sep;26(9):891. doi: 10.1111/resp.14093

Douglas KM. COVID-19 conspiracy theories. Group Process. Integer. Relat. 2021 Feb;24(2):270-5. DOI: 10.1177//1368430220982068

Siddiqui A, Ahmed A, Tanveer M, Saqlain M, Kow CS, Hasan SS. An overview of procurement, pricing, and uptake of COVID-19 vaccines in Pakistan. Vaccine. 2021 Aug 8;39(37):5251. Vaccine. 2021. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.07.072

Heinzerling A, Stuckey MJ, Scheuer T, Xu K, Perkins KM, Resseger H, Magill S, Verani JR, Jain S, Acosta M, Epson E. Transmission of COVID-19 to health care personnel during exposures to a hospitalized patient—Solano County, California, February 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Apr 4;69(15):472. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6915e5

Dror AA, Eisenbach N, Taiber S, Morozov NG, Mizrachi M, Zigron A, Srouji S, Sela E. Vaccine hesitancy: the next challenge in the fight against COVID-19. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 2020 Aug;35:775-9. DOI:

Soares P, Rocha JV, Moniz M, Gama A, Laires PA, Pedro AR, Dias S, Leite A, Nunes C. Factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Vaccines. 2021 Mar 22;9(3):300. Vaccines.

Khan YH, Mallhi TH, Alotaibi NH, Alzarea AI, Alanazi AS, Tanveer N, Hashmi FK. Threat of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Pakistan: the need for measures to neutralize misleading narratives. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2020 Aug;103(2):603. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-0654

Lucia VC, Kelekar A, Afonso NM. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among medical students. J Public Health. 2021 Sep;43(3):445-9.

Saied SM, Saied EM, Kabbash IA, Abdo SA. Vaccine hesitancy: Beliefs and barriers associated with COVID‐19 vaccination among Egyptian medical students. J Med Virol. 2021 Jul;93(7):4280-91.

Kelekar AK, Lucia VC, Afonso NM, Mascarenhas AK. COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy among dental and medical students. J Am Dent Assoc. 2021 Aug 1;152(8):596-603.

Qiao S, Friedman DB, Tam CC, Zeng C, Li X. Vaccine acceptance among college students in South Carolina: Do information sources and trust in information make a difference?. MedRxiv. 2020 Dec 4:2020-12. doi:

Yahia AI, Alshahrani AM, Alsulmi WG, Alqarni MM, Abdulrahim TK, Heba WF, Alqarni TA, Alharthi KA, Buhran AA. Determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy: a cross-sectional study in Saudi Arabia. Hum. Vaccines Immunother. 2021 Nov 2;17(11):4015-20.

Jain J, Saurabh S, Goel AD, Gupta MK, Bhardwaj P, Raghav PR. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among undergraduate medical students: results from a nationwide survey in India. MedRxiv. 2021 Mar 12:2021-03. doi:

Barello S, Nania T, Dellafiore F, Graffigna G, Caruso R. ‘Vaccine hesitancy’among university students in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 2020 Aug;35:781-3. DOI:

Tam CC, Qiao S, Li X. Factors associated with decision making on COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among college students in South Carolina. Psychol Health Med. 2022 Jan 2;27(1):150-61.

Raja SM, Osman ME, Musa AO, Hussien AA, Yusuf K. COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, hesitancy, and associated factors among medical students in Sudan. PLoS One. 2022 Apr 7;17(4):e0266670.

Roy DN, Biswas M, Islam E, Azam MS. Potential factors influencing COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy: A systematic review. PLoS One. 2022 Mar 23;17(3):e0265496.

Shekhar R, Sheikh AB, Upadhyay S, Singh M, Kottewar S, Mir H, Barrett E, Pal S. COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among health care workers in the United States. Vaccines. 2021 Feb 3;9(2):119.

Li M, Luo Y, Watson R, Zheng Y, Ren J, Tang J, Chen Y. Healthcare workers’(HCWs) attitudes and related factors towards COVID-19 vaccination: a rapid systematic review. Postgrad. Med. J.. 2021 Jun 30.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Rawalpindi Medical College