Official publication of Rawalpindi Medical University
Anxiety And Depression Among Medical Students During Covid-19 Pandemic In Faisalabad

Supplementary Files

PDF

How to Cite

1.
Din M ud, Naveed HU, Tauseef M, Javed M, Sarfraz S, Waheed J. Anxiety And Depression Among Medical Students During Covid-19 Pandemic In Faisalabad. JRMC [Internet]. 2023 Sep. 1 [cited 2024 Apr. 22];27(3). Available from: https://journalrmc.com/index.php/JRMC/article/view/1791

Abstract

Objectives: To find out the frequency of anxiety and depression among medical students during the Covid-19 pandemic and to study their relationship with socio-demographic factors.

Methodology: Analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on medical students of various medical institutions in Faisalabad and their consent was taken beforehand. The study duration was 2 months (August to September 2021). Ethical approval was taken. The questionnaire was distributed online through google forms on social media platforms to all MBBS students of a medical college and the total number of responses received was 452. Non-probability purposive sampling was done.  The inclusion criteria were those students who gave consent and filled out the questionnaire and the exclusion criteria were those who didn't concede. A validated and structured questionnaire was used. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: demographic data; COVID-19-related attitudes and practising preventive behaviours, generalized anxiety disorder scale – 7 (GAD-7) to determine anxiety among medical students and patient health questionnaire – 9 (PHQ-9) to determine depression.

Results: Most of the students i.e. 132 (29.2) were having mild anxiety, followed by minimal, moderate and severe anxiety. Similar scores were observed in PHQ-9 results which showed mostly students were having mild depression i.e. 127 (28.1) followed by minimal, moderate, moderately severe and severe depression respectively. Average GAD-7 score was 8.73 (M = 8.73; SD = 5.78); average PHQ-9 score was 10.78 (M = 10; SD = 7.1). Significant relationship was found between gender (p = 0.00), year of study (p = 0.039), suffered Covid-19 in present or past (p = 0.00), afraid of getting Covid-19 (p=0.001) with anxiety and gender (p = 0.00), suffered Covid-19 in present or past (p=0.001) and afraid of getting Covid-19 infection (p=0.001) with depression.

Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of medical students suffering from anxiety and depression during Covid-19. The students in the age group above 21 years, females, year of study (4th year) and afraid of getting Covid-19 infection were at higher risk of psychological distress in a pandemic. It is important to find ways to alleviate the pressure and fear of college students, provide them with more social support, and help them adapt to the changes in their learning styles and lifestyle.

https://doi.org/10.37939/jrmc.v27i3.1791

References

Wong SH, Lui RN, Sung JJ. Covid‐19 and the digestive system. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2020 May;35(5):744-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgh.15047

Du Z, Wang L, Cauchemez S, Xu X, Wang X, Cowling BJ, Meyers LA. Risk for transportation of coronavirus disease from Wuhan to other cities in China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 May;26(5):1049. doi: 10.3201/eid2605.200146

Peng M. Outbreak of COVID-19: An emerging global pandemic threat. Biomed. Pharmacother. 2020 Sep 1;129:110499. 2020:110499. https: //doi.org /10.1016/ j. biota. 2020.110499

Fu C, Liao L, Huang W. Behavioral implementation and compliance of anti-epidemic policy in the COVID-19 crisis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2021 Apr 4;18(7):3776. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073776

Anser MK, Yousaf Z, Khan MA, Nassani AA, Abro MM, Vo XH, Zaman K. Social and administrative issues related to the COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan: better late than never. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res.2020 Sep;27:34567-73. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10008-7

Mukhtar S. Preparedness and proactive infection control measures of Pakistan during COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. Res. Social Adm. Pharm. 2021 Jan;17(1):2052. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.04.011

Farooq F, Rathore FA, Mansoor SN. Challenges of online medical education in Pakistan during COVID-19 pandemic. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2020 Jun 1;30(6):67-9. https://doi.org/10.29271/jcpsp.2020.Supp1.S67

Khawar MB, Abbasi MH, Hussain S, Riaz M, Rafiq M, Mehmood R, Sheikh N, Amaan HN, Fatima S, Jabeen F, Ahmad Z. Psychological impacts of COVID-19 and satisfaction from online classes: disturbance in daily routine and prevalence of depression, stress, and anxiety among students of Pakistan. Heliyon. 2021 May 1;7(5):e07030. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07030

Rafi MS. Dialogic content analysis of misinformation about COVID-19 on social media in Pakistan. Lang Lit. 2020 Oct 10;6(2):131-43. https://doi.org/10.32350/llr.62.12

Shafi M, Liu J, Ren W. Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on micro, small, and medium-sized Enterprises operating in Pakistan. Research in Globalization. 2020 Dec 1;2:100018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resglo.2020.100018

I Islam MA, Barna SD, Raihan H, Khan MN, Hossain MT. Depression and anxiety among university students during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh: A web-based cross-sectional survey. PLoS One. 2020 Aug 26;15(8):e0238162. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0238162

Green P. Risks to children and young people during covid-19 pandemic. Bmj. 2020 Apr 28;369. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1669

Akat M, Karataş K. Psychological effects of COVID-19 pandemic on society and its reflections on education. Turk. Stud. 2020 Aug 1;15(4). https://dx.doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.44336

Risal A, Shikhrakar S, Mishra S, Kunwar D, Karki E, Shrestha B, Khadka S, Holen A. Anxiety and depression during COVID-19 pandemic among medical students in Nepal. Res Sq. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-91574/v1

Sartorão Filho CI, de Las Villas Rodrigues WC, de Castro RB, Marçal AA, Pavelqueires S, Takano L, de Oliveira WL, Sartorão Neto CI. Impact Of covid-19 pandemic on mental health of medical students: a cross-sectional study using GAD-7 and PHQ-9 questionnaires. MedRxiv. 2020 Jun 25:2020-06. doi: https: //doi.org /10.1101/ 2020. 06. 24.2 0138925

Lasheras I, Gracia-García P, Lipnicki DM, Bueno-Notivol J, López-Antón R, De La Cámara C, Lobo A, Santabárbara J. Prevalence of anxiety in medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic: a rapid systematic review with meta-analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2020 Feb;17(18):6603. 2020;17(18):6603. https://doi. org/ 10.3390 /ijerph 17186603

Roh MS, Jeon HJ, Kim H, Han SK, Hahm BJ. The prevalence and impact of depression among medical students: a nationwide cross-sectional study in South Korea. Acad Med. 2010 Aug 1;85(8):1384-90.. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181df5e43

Yu M, Tian F, Cui Q, Wu H. Prevalence and its associated factors of depressive symptoms among Chinese college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. BMC Psychiatry. 2021 Dec;21:1-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03066-9

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2023 Mohi ud Din, Hafiz Usama Naveed, Maryam Tauseef, Maham Javed, Sana Sarfraz, Jahanzaib Waheed